Gilbert Baker (artist)
Gilbert Baker (June 2, 1951 – March 31, 2017) was an American artist, gay rights activist, and designer of the rainbow flag (1978), a worldwide symbol of LGBTQ pride. His flag became widely associated with LGBT rights causes, a symbol of gay pride that has become ubiquitous in the decades since its debut. California state senator Scott Wiener said Baker "helped define the modern LGBT movement".
|Born||June 2, 1951|
Chanute, Kansas, U.S.
|Died||March 31, 2017 (aged 65)|
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Other names||Busty Ross|
|Occupation||Gay rights activist|
|Known for||Designing the rainbow flag|
Baker served in the United States Army from 1970 to 1972. He was stationed as a medic in San Francisco at the beginning of the gay rights movement, and lived there as an openly gay man. After his honorable discharge from the military, he worked on the first marijuana legalization initiative California Proposition 19 (1972), and was taught to sew by his fellow activist Mary Dunn. He used his skill to create banners for gay-rights and anti-war protest marches. It was during this time that he met and became friends with Harvey Milk. He also joined the gay drag activist group Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence stating, "At first it was glamorous and political, but when the Sisters became more organized, I became a tool of the right wing and raised money for Jerry Falwell", referring to video and images of the group that were used for right-wing Christian efforts, "so I stopped."
Baker first created the Rainbow Flag with a collective in 1978. He refused to trademark it, seeing it as a symbol that was for the LGBT community. In 1979, Baker began work at Paramount Flag Company in San Francisco, then located on the southwest corner of Polk Street and Post Street in the Polk Gulch neighborhood. Baker designed displays for Dianne Feinstein, the Premier of China, the presidents of France, Venezuela, and the Philippines, the King of Spain, and many others. He also designed creations for numerous civic events and San Francisco Gay Pride. In 1984, he designed flags for the Democratic National Convention.
In 1994, Baker moved to New York City, where he lived for the rest of his life. Here, he continued his creative work and activism. That year he created the world's largest flag (at that time) in celebration of the 25th anniversary of the 1969 Stonewall riots.
In 2003, to commemorate the Rainbow Flag's 25th anniversary, Baker created a Rainbow Flag that stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean in Key West. After the commemoration, he sent sections of this flag to more than 100 cities around the world. Due to his creation of the rainbow flag, Baker often used the drag queen name "Busty Ross", alluding to Betsy Ross.
Baker died at home in his sleep on March 31, 2017 at age 65, in New York City. The New York City medical examiner's office determined cause of death was hypertensive and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Upon Baker's death, California state senator Scott Wiener said Baker "helped define the modern LGBT movement".
In 2003, Baker and his Key West project were the subject of Rainbow Pride, a feature-length documentary by Marie Jo Ferron, bought by PBS National and debuting in New York on WNET. Baker recreated his original Rainbow Flag for the Academy-award-winning 2008 film Milk, and is shown being interviewed on one of the featurettes of the DVD release.
In February and early March 2017, Baker was portrayed in Dustin Lance Black's When We Rise by Jack Plotnick, and by Dylan Arnold as young Gilbert Baker. In the second part of the miniseries Baker's character is shown sewing the flag and, later on, explaining to Cleve Jones the reasoning for the colors he had chosen.
In June 2019, Baker was one of the inaugural fifty American “pioneers, trailblazers, and heroes” inducted on the National LGBTQ Wall of Honor within the Stonewall National Monument (SNM) in New York City's Stonewall Inn. The SNM is the first U.S. national monument dedicated to LGBTQ rights and history, and the wall's unveiling was timed to take place during the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall riots.
In June 2019, Paris, France named a square Stonewall Riots Square. In the renamed Stonewall Riots Square, a plaque commemorating Baker was installed. The plaque was unveiled by Anne Hidalgo, Mayor of Paris, French officials, Stuart Milk and activists of Stonewall riots. This new plaza is situated in the center of The Marais, gay neighborough of the French capital. This plaque is now part of the heritage of the City of Paris and is located between a Gucci boutique and Italian marketplace Eataly. Dotted with café terraces, this pedestrian place also hosts some days a truck for the prevention of AIDS. Despite the crowds, Parisians and visitors can gather in front of this memorial dedicated to Gilbert Baker.
Museums and archivesEdit
Baker's work and related historical artifacts are represented in several major museum and archival collections. The GLBT Historical Society in San Francisco owns one of the sewing machines Baker used to produce the original rainbow flags in 1978, along with one of the limited-edition recreations of the eight-stripe design he produced to mark the 25th anniversary of the flag. In 2012, the society displayed both objects in an exhibition on the history of the flag at the GLBT History Museum which it sponsors in San Francisco's Castro District. In 2015, the Museum of Modern Art in New York City acquired examples of the rainbow flag for its design collection, where curators ranked it as an internationally recognized symbol similar in importance to the Creative Commons logo and the recycling symbol.
The colors on the Rainbow Flag reflect the diversity of the LGBT community. When Baker raised the first rainbow flags at San Francisco Pride (his group raised two flags at the Civic Center) on June 25, 1978, it comprised eight symbolic colors:
Thirty volunteers had helped Baker hand-dye and stitch the first two flags in the top-floor attic gallery of the Gay Community Center at 330 Grove Street in San Francisco. Because using dye in public washing machines wasn't allowed, they waited until late at night to rinse the dye from their clothes, running a cycle with bleach in the washing machines after leaving.
The design has undergone several revisions to remove two colors for expediency and later re-add those colors when they became more widely available. As of 2021, the most common variant consists of six stripes, with the colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. Baker referred to this version of the flag as the "commercial version", because it came about due to practical considerations of mass production. Specifically, the rainbow flag lost its hot pink stripe when Baker approached the Paramount Flag Company to begin mass-producing them, and the hot pink fabric was too rare and expensive to include. The rainbow flag lost its turquoise stripe before the 1979 Gay Freedom Day Parade, as the committee organizing the parade wanted to fly the flag in two-halves, from the light poles along both sides of Market Street, so it became a six-striped flag with equal halves.
- Hemmelgarn, Seth (June 2, 1951). "The Bay Area Reporter Online | Gilbert Baker, rainbow flag creator, dies". Ebar.com. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- "Gilbert Baker Obituary – Macon, GA | The Telegraph". Legacy.com. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- "Creator of the LGBT rainbow flag dies". BBC News. April 1, 2017. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
- Paola Antonelli, and Michelle Millar Fisher (June 15, 2015). "MoMA Acquires the Rainbow Flag". Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- Haag, Matthew (March 31, 2017). "Gilbert Baker, Gay Activist Who Created the Rainbow Flag, Dies at 65". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- Swanson, Ana (June 29, 2015). "How the rainbow became the symbol of gay pride". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- Presentation given by Baker at Congregation Beit Simchat Torah Aleinu's 2015 Architects of the LGBTQ Movement Discussion Series (video). February 23, 2015. Event occurs at 30:44. Retrieved August 11, 2017 – via YouTube.
- Drash, Wayne (June 30, 2015). "Rainbow flag maker was inspired by Bible, U.S. flag". CNN. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- "The Bay Area Reporter Online | Rainbow flag creator
Gilbert Baker to receive
inauguralFounders Award". Bay Area Reporter. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Gilchrist, Tracy E. (March 31, 2017). "Rainbow Flag Creator and Activist Gilbert Baker Has Died at 65". The Advocate. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- "Gilbert Baker biography". Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2014.
- Allday, Erin (March 31, 2017). "Gilbert Baker, designer of the rainbow flag, dead at 65". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- "Gilbert Baker, LGBT rainbow flag creator, dies aged 65". BBC News. April 1, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- "Gilbert Baker, Creator of Rainbow LGBT Pride Flag, Dies". CBS. March 31, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- Fitzgerald, Michael. "NYC Pride Announces New Free Font to Honor Rainbow Flag Creator Gilbert Baker". Towleroad. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- Robertson, Michelle (April 26, 2017). "New font celebrates Gilbert Baker, designer of rainbow flag". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
- "Gilbert Baker: Google Doodle honors creator of the rainbow flag". USA Today. 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Sanders, Rob (April 10, 2018). Pride: The Story of Harvey Milk and the Rainbow Flag. Penguin Random House.
- Glasses-Baker, Becca (June 27, 2019). "National LGBTQ Wall of Honor unveiled at Stonewall Inn". www.metro.us. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- SDGLN, Timothy Rawles-Community Editor for (June 19, 2019). "National LGBTQ Wall of Honor to be unveiled at historic Stonewall Inn". San Diego Gay and Lesbian News. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- "Groups seek names for Stonewall 50 honor wall". The Bay Area Reporter / B.A.R. Inc. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- "Stonewall 50". San Francisco Bay Times. April 3, 2019. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- "Paris names squares and streets for LGBTQ icons | CNN Travel". Cnn.com. 2019. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
- "Paris streets, squares named in honour of LGBT+ figures". RFI. June 26, 2019. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
- "GLBT History Museum presents 'The Birth of the Rainbow Flag'". Edge Media Network. Edge Publications. June 18, 2012. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- "San Francisco creator of gay flag shares story of strength, pride". ABC7 News. KGO-TV. March 1, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- How the Pride Rainbow Flag Came to Be (video). NBC News. June 23, 2016. Event occurs at 2:30. Retrieved June 2, 2017 – via YouTube.
It's a flag, it needed to have depth, and so I liked the idea that each color would represent an element of everyone's life.
- Gilbert Baker: The Gay Betsy Ross (video). In the Life Media. June 23, 2016. Event occurs at 2:31. Retrieved June 2, 2017 – via YouTube.
- Witt, Lynn; Thomas, Sherry; Marcus, Eric (1997) . Out in All Directions: The Almanac of Gay and Lesbian America. New York: Warner Books. p. 435. ISBN 0446672378. OCLC 37034700.
- "The Rainbow Flag". Retrieved August 21, 2007.
- Gilbert Baker (October 18, 2007). "Pride-Flyin' Flag: Rainbow-flag founder marks 30-years anniversary". Metro Weekly. Retrieved March 13, 2008.
- on YouTube In the Life Media, 2009. Retrieved January 3, 2011.
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