German playing cards
German playing cards are a style of playing cards used in many parts of Central Europe. Playing cards (Spielkarten) entered German-speaking lands around the late 1370s. The earliest cards were likely Latin-suited like in Italy and Spain. After much experimentation, the cards settled into new suits of Acorns (Eichel), Leaves (Grün, Blatt, Laub or Gras), Hearts (Herz) and Bells (Schelle or Schell) around 1450. Closely related Swiss playing cards are used in German-speaking Switzerland. The French suit symbols were derived from the German ones around 1480. German-suited cards spread throughout Central Europe into areas that were once under German or Austrian control (Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Croatia, Transylvania, Banat, Vojvodina, South Tyrol, Transcarpathia, and parts of Poland). They were also produced and used as far east as Russia until the early 20th century. German-suited decks are not well known all over these countries including parts of Germany itself as they have been undergoing strong competition from French playing cards since the late 17th-century. Traditional card games in which the German suits are used include Skat, Schafkopf, Doppelkopf and Watten.
German suited decks tend to have fewer cards than either the French, Spanish, or Italian sets. The typical northern German pack has 32 cards ranking from 7, 8, 9, 10, Under Knave (Unter = inferior / sergeant), Over Knave (Ober = superior / officer), King (König), and Ace (Ass) for a total of 32 cards. The "Ace" is really a Deuce (Daus) as usually indicated by its two pips. Southern patterns have 36 cards by including the 6.
In Bavaria, Austria and South Tyrol, the 6 of Bells (or sometimes the 7 of Bells where there is no 6) is known as the Weli or Belle which is often used as a wild card. The Weli first appeared around 1855 in the discontinued Tyrolean pattern and later the Salzburg and William Tell patterns. The 7 of Bells is sometimes known as the Belli and the 7 of Acorns as the Spitz or Soacher and they are of comparable use, with the Weli being the higher card. For instance, in the Bavarian Watten game the top three cards following the respective trump ace are - in descending order: Maxi (= the King of Hearts, nicknamed after Bavaria's first King), Belli (or Welli) and Spitz. With the exception of the New Altenburg pattern, all cards with the rank of 10 include the Roman numeral X at the top centre of the card.
The ace in German and Swiss German sets have a peculiar history. Aces disappeared from German decks during the 15th century. When the Ace was promoted above the King in French packs during the 16th century, the deuce did so as well in Germany leading to the conflation of the Ace and Deuce. This is why in some sets the ace depicts two pips and is also called a Daus (deuce). Confusion is avoided when the 7 or 6 became the lowest card in most packs during the 17th and 18th centuries. Players also avoid confusion by alternatively calling the Ace/Deuce a Sau (sow).
Many regions have their own pattern (Bild) which features their own unique artwork or number of cards. Some patterns are descended from much earlier ones like the Saxon pattern which can trace their ancestry to the 15th-century Stukeley type cards named after their identifier, William Stukeley, in 1763.
Northern patterns have 32 cards and are used to play Skat. In northern patterns, the acorns are red. The only traditional northern pattern still in production is the Saxon pattern where only pip cards have corner indices. It is a product of a long evolution from the primitive Stukeley type cards imported from Nuremberg. They have been marginalized by the New Altenburg or German pattern, created by Walter Krauss (1908-1985) in the former East Germany, which added corner indices to every card but the Aces.
The 36 card Bavarian (Munich and Stralsund types), Franconian, and Salzburg (or einfachdeutsche) patterns are descended from the Old Bavarian pattern which itself goes back to the 15th-century Augsburg pattern. Their most notable feature are that the Obers and Unters are engaged in combat except in the suit of leaves where they accompany their fighting comrades by playing musical instruments. Since the 1980s, Italian manufacturers have included 5s into their Salzburg decks to allow the German speaking South Tyroleans to play Italian card games that require 40 cards with suits they are more familiar with. Salzburg decks also inherited the "Weli" from its extinct sibling, the Tyrolean pattern.
The Bohemian (or Prague) pattern is also descended from the Old Bavarian but has only 32 cards like the northern ones. The Salzburg and Bohemian patterns are also not reversible and lack corner indices. Most games require only 32 cards by excluding the 6s such as Schafkopf. Games that require the full deck include Jass and Tarock.
The Bavarian pattern appeared from about 1650 and developed into various different types. In all variants the Obers and Unters are portrayed as fighters, with the Ober and Unter of Leaves carrying a drum and fife respectively. Bavarian cards have an aspect ratio of roughly 2:1. In the non-reversible (Einfach) pattern which used to be commonplace, various pictorial designs were used, especially on the pip cards. These individual scenes are now only found on the Deuces (also called Twos, Sows or, incorrectly, Aces). The usual variants found today are the:
- Bavarian-Swabian pattern
- Bavarian Doppelbild, Munich type
- Bavarian Doppelbild, Stralsund type
- Non-reversible images of the nowadays common reversible cards
- Franconian reversible pattern
- Bohemian pattern
- Salzburg pattern (also called the Single German or ‚‘einfachdeutsch‘‘ pattern)
Variants no longer common today:
- Old Bavarian pattern (common predecessor) with variants in Poland and Russia
- Isarkreis pattern (predecessor of the Salzburg pattern)
- Nuremberg Eagle (coat of arms) cards
- Regensburg pattern (predecessor of the Bohemian pattern)
- Tyrolean pattern
The Augsburg pattern was one of the two ancestors (the other being the Ulm-Munich pattern) of the present Bavarian pattern pack and appeared around 1500. The four kings sitting on thrones are each accompanied by two armed servants. The Ober and Unter of Leaves are military musicians, the Ober is a bagpipe-playing fool; the Unter is playing a ‘fanfare’ or flute. The Ober and Unter of Hearts are armed with polearms, the Ober and Unter of Bells with swords, The Ober and Unter of Acorns carry a mace and bossed shield.
Old Bavarian patternEdit
In the middle of the 17th century, after the Thirty Years’ War, the Augsburg pattern changed into the so-called Old Bavarian pattern. The Ober and Unter of Acorns were now each armed with a sword and parrying dagger. The Ober and Unter of Leaves now carried a drum and fife respectively; from now on the drummer and fifer became the distinguishing feature of the Bavarian pattern. Obers and Unters of the same suit were armed, as in a fencing school, with the same weapons. In this period the number of cards was reduced from the former 48 (the One – Ace – had already disappeared) to 36 (the Three, Four and Five were removed; the Two or Deuce already outranked the King by that time), probably due to paper shortages. In the late 17th century, during the Turkish Wars, the Kings of Leaves and Acorns swapped their crowns for turbans. The Deuces depicted various scenes. The Deuce of Leaves had a pyramid with a unicorn, deer and eagle; the Deuce of Acorns depicted Bacchus, the Deuce of Bells had a wild boar being attacked by a hunting dog and, on the Deuce of Hearts was usually a Cupid. Around 1750 this pattern became widespread across the whole old Bavarian region. Smaller variations of this pattern became common in Congress Poland from 1918.
Modern Bavarian patternEdit
In the newly formed Kingdom of Bavaria, the Old Bavarian pattern changed after 1810 into the Modern Bavarian pattern. A vase now appears on the Deuce of Leaves and the King of Acorns was given a crown again, leaving the King of Leaves as the only 'oriental' figure. The Ober of Heart has now exchanged his polearm for a sword on which he rests. The Ober and Unter of Acorns now only carry one weapon, however, Ober of Acorns also carries an oval shield. This type, designed by Munich card maker, Josef Fetscher, draughted by Frankfurt card maker, "C. L. Wüst", and manufactured around 1854, is known today as the Munich type of the Bavarian pattern. It has been widely used thanks to its production by the playing-card manufacturers, F. X. Schmid. In 1882, the United Altenburger und Stralsunder Spielkarten-Fabriken printed their own version of the Bavarian pattern, which went back to a design by Frankfurt card manufacturer’s Lennhoff & Heuser. The Kings, Obers and Unters were dressed in fantasy uniforms in the style of historicism. Essential distinguishing features of this Stralsund type of the Bavarian pattern from its Munich type are:
- The Ober of Leaves carries the drum on his right knee instead of the left.
- The Unter of Acorns wears a beret.
- The Ober of Acorns has a pointed shield instead of an oval one.
- The Bacchus on the Deuce of Acorn has a beer mug instead of a wine goblet.
- The Cupid has butterfly wings.
In the 20th century, the pip and court cards were gradually marked with indices and the misprinting of Deuces with the letter A, instead of the more accurate D, prevailed.
After the Second World War, the previously dominant non-reversible cards finally disappeared and were replaced by the reversible designs that are still widespread today.
The Württemberg pattern was invented around 1865 by C.L. Wüst and carries many unique features. The kings were copied from French-suited patterns now found in the Netherlands and Portugal. The Obers were inspired by the Knights in Adler-Cego decks used in nearby Baden. Unters are journeymen. A younger type of this pattern, using different court designs also exist. In the present, the cards are sold as a doubled pack of 48 cards (24 unique cards duplicated). The duplicated cards (7, 10, U, O, K, A of each suit) are used to play Doppelkopf, Pinochle, and Gaigel. They used to be produced in 36 card packs (with every card unique), like other southern patterns, to play Württembergischer Tarock. This was the original format but by 1985 it was restricted to the Palatinate where it died out. Pressman Toy has published a 48 card version where every card is unique to play Karnöffel. It uses the younger type and is mislabeled as the Bavarian pattern.
The William Tell or Double German (doppeldeutsche) pattern is popular throughout the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Ober and Unter cards depict William Tell and other characters from Friedrich Schiller's Wilhelm Tell (the title character is Ober of Acorns). The play's first Hungarian performance was in 1833 and the first decks were made by József Schneider of Pest around 1835. The characters from the drama were chosen to avoid censorship at the time of the Hungarian opposition to Habsburg rule. The story, after all, was about a successful revolt against the Habsburgs.
When Austrians began producing this deck, they changed two of the characters. The Aces or Deuces depict the four seasons which are also somewhat different in the Austrian and Hungarian versions. The Slovak-Moravian version follows the Austrian version but doesn't label the characters or the seasons. The Kings don't represent anyone in particular and are shown mounted on horses. Except for the Aces, all pip cards have Roman numerals. The suit symbols are also slightly different, most notably the leaves are now half yellow and end with three tips. They come in packs of 32, 33 (with the Weli), or 36 cards. They are sometimes called "Swiss cards" due to the nationality of the characters but this pattern is not used in Switzerland. In Hungary, they are called "magyar kártya", i.e. "Hungarian cards".
The characters and seasons depicted by the cards are as follows:
German-French hybrid suited decksEdit
After the unification and reunification of Germany, compromise decks were created to help players from around the country who were used to different suits. The Skat Congress decks split cards diagonally with one half using the pattern with French suits and the other half using the pattern with German suits. This is not unique to Germany as similar split decks are found in Austria, Switzerland and even France.
- Hoffmann, Detlef (1993). Altdeutsche Spielkarten 1500-1650. Nuremberg: Germanischen Nationalmuseums. pp. 19–21.
- Dummett, Michael (1980). The Game of Tarot. London: Duckworth. pp. 10–29.
- Kranich, Jurgen; Radau, Sigmar; Schlede, Stefan (2009). Schwerdterkarten Band vol 1. Berlin: Studien zur Spielkarte.
- further history of this pattern: http://www.altacarta.com/english/research/germany-DDR-pattern.html pictures of the original design: http://www.altacarta.com/overview/DDR-d.html pictures of the second (present) design with queens from third design: http://www.altacarta.com/overview/DDR.html
- Pollett, Andrea. "Patterns from former East Germany". Andy's Playing Cards (archived). Archived from the original on March 5, 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- Hausler, Manfred (2006). "From Schongau to Saint Petersburg". The Playing-Card. 35 (2): 96–110.
- "Old Bavarian pattern". International Playing-Card Society. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- "Later Tyrol pattern". International Playing-Card Society. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- Württemberg pattern at the International Playing-Card Society. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- Mann, Sylvia (1990). All Cards on the Table. Leinfelden: Deutsches Spielkarten-Museum. pp. 61–114.
- Würtembergisches Doppelbild at Meine Spielkarten Seite. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
- Deutsche Bilder-Deutsche Farben. Prien am Chiemsee: F.X. Schmid. 1985. p. 21.
- Karnöffel at BoardGameGeek. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Tell pattern type 1 at the International Playing-Card Society. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "Doppeldeutsch: Wilhelm Tell und die Ungarn (Tell cards history)". trift.org. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- This is due to the fact that the French regions of Alsace and Lorraine (nowadays : Grand-Est) were once German territory
- "Andy's Playing Cards - Shapes, Sizes and Colours". Archived from the original on February 21, 2009.