A geostationary orbit, often referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit 35,786 km (22,236 mi) above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.
An object in such an orbit has an orbital period equal to the Earth's rotational period, one sidereal day, so to ground observers it appears motionless, at a fixed position in the sky. The concept of a geostationary orbit was popularised by Arthur C. Clarke in the 1940s as a way to revolutionise telecommunications, and the first satellite to be placed in this orbit was launched in 1963.
Communications satellites are often placed in a geostationary orbit so that Earth based satellite antennas (located on Earth) do not have to rotate to track them, but can be pointed permanently at the position in the sky where the satellites are located. Weather satellites are also placed in this orbit for real time monitoring and data collection, and Navigation satellites to provide a known calibration point and enhance GPS accuracy.
The first appearance of a geostationary orbit in popular literature was in October, 1942, in the first Venus Equilateral story by George O. Smith, but Smith did not go into details. British science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke popularised and expanded the concept in a 1945 paper entitled "Extra-Terrestrial Relays — Can Rocket Stations Give Worldwide Radio Coverage?", published in Wireless World magazine. Clarke acknowledged the connection in his introduction to The Complete Venus Equilateral. The orbit, which Clarke first described as useful for broadcast and relay communications satellites, is sometimes called the Clarke Orbit. Similarly, the collection of artificial satellites in this orbit is known as the Clarke Belt.
The first geostationary satellite was designed by Harold Rosen while he was working at Hughes Aircraft in 1959. Inspired by Sputnik, he wanted to use a geostationary satellite to globalise communications. At the time, telecommunications between the US and Europe was possible between just 136 people at a time, and reliant on HF radios and an undersea cable.
Conventional wisdom at the time was that it would require too much rocket power to place a satellite in a geostationary orbit and it would not survive long enough to justify the expense, so early communication satellites were placed in a low Earth orbit. The first of these was the passive Echo balloon satellites in 1960, followed by Telstar 1 in 1962. Although these projects had difficulties with signal strength and tracking, the geostationary concept was seen as impractical, so Hughes often withheld funds and support.
By 1961 Rosen his team had produced a cylindrical prototype with a diameter of 76 centimetres (30 in), height of 38 centimetres (15 in), weighing 11.3 kilograms (25 lb), light and small enough to be placed into orbit. It was spin stabilised and produced a flattened waveform. In August 1961, they were contracted to began building the real satellite.
They lost Syncom 1 to electronics failure, but Syncom 2 was successfully placed into a geosynchronous orbit in 1963. Although its inclined orbit still required moving antennas it was able to relay TV transmissions, and allowed for US President Kennedy to phone Nigerian PM Balewa from a ship.
The first satellite placed in a geostationary orbit was Syncom 3, which was launched by a Delta D rocket in 1963. With its increased bandwidth this satellite was able to transmit live coverage of the Summer Olympics from Japan to America. Geostationary orbits have been in common use ever since, in particular for satellite television.
Although most populated land locations on the planet now have terrestrial communications facilities (microwave, fiber-optic), with telephone access covering 96% of the population and internet access 90% some rural and remote areas are still reliant on satellite communications.
Geostationary communication satellites are useful because of their large coverage, extending 81°, and stationary position in the sky, eliminating the need for movable ground antennas.
However, latency becomes significant — about 250ms for a trip from one ground-based transmitter to the satellite and back to another ground-based transmitter.
For example, for ground stations at latitudes of φ = ±45° on the same meridian as the satellite, the time taken for a signal to pass from Earth to the satellite and back again can be computed using the cosine rule, given the geostationary orbital radius r (see derivation of geostationary altitude), the Earth's radius R and the speed of light c, as
This delay presents problems for latency-sensitive applications such as voice communication, so geostationary communication satellites are primarily used for unidirectional entertainment and applications where low latency alternatives are not available.
Geostationary satellites are directly overhead at the equator and appear lower in the sky to an observer nearer the poles. As the observer's latitude increases, communication becomes more difficult due to factors such as atmospheric refraction, Earth's thermal emission, line-of-sight obstructions, and signal reflections from the ground or nearby structures. At latitudes above about 81°, geostationary satellites are below the horizon and cannot be seen at all. Because of this, some Russian communication satellites have used elliptical Molniya and Tundra orbits, which have excellent visibility at high latitudes.
A worldwide network of operational geostationary meteorological satellites is used to provide visible and infrared images of Earth's surface and atmosphere for weather observation, oceanography, and atmospheric tracking. As of 2019 there are 19 satellites in either operation or stand-by. These satellite systems include:
- the United States' GOES series, operated by NOAA
- the Meteosat series, launched by the European Space Agency and operated by the European Weather Satellite Organization, EUMETSAT
- the Republic of Korea COMS-1 and GK-2A multi mission satellites.
- the Russian Elektro-L satellites
- the Japanese Himawari series
- Chinese Fengyun series
- India's INSAT series
These satellites typically captures images in the visual and infrared spectrum with a spatial resolution between 0.5 and 4 square kilometres. The coverage is typically 70°, and in some cases less.
Geostationary satellite imagery has been used for tracking volcanic ash, measuring cloud top temperature and water vapour, oceanography, facilitating cyclone path prediction and providing real time cloud coverage and other tracking data Some information has been incorporated into meteorological prediction models, but geostationary weather satellite images are primarily used for short-term and real-time forecasting.
Geostationary satellites can be used to augment GNSS systems by relaying clock, ephemeris and ionospheric error corrections (calculated from ground stations of a known position) and providing an additional reference signal.
This improves position accuracy from ~5m to ~1m or less.
Past and current navigation systems that use geostationary satellites include:
- The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), operated by the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
- The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), operated by the ESSP (on behalf of EU's GSA).
- The Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS), operated by Japan's Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Japan Civil Aviation Bureau (JCAB).
- The GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) system being operated by India.
- The commercial StarFire navigation system, operated by John Deere and C-Nav Positioning Solutions (Oceaneering).
- The commercial Starfix DGPS System and OmniSTAR system, operated by Fugro
Geostationary satellites are launched from as close to the equator as possible, to provide the maximum launch boost and to limit the amount of inclination change needed later.
Most launch vehicles place geostationary satellites directly into a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO), an elliptical orbit with an apogee at GEO height and a low perigee. On board satellite propulsion is then used to raise the perigee and reach GEO.
Satellites in geostationary orbit must all occupy a single ring above the equator. The requirement to space these satellites apart to avoid harmful radio-frequency interference during operations means that there are a limited number of orbital "slots" available, and thus only a limited number of satellites can be operated in geostationary orbit. This has led to conflict between different countries wishing access to the same orbital slots (countries near the same longitude but differing latitudes) and radio frequencies. These disputes are addressed through the International Telecommunication Union's allocation mechanism. In the 1976 Bogotá Declaration, eight countries located on the Earth's equator claimed sovereignty over the geostationary orbits above their territory, but the claims gained no international recognition.
A statite, a hypothetical satellite that uses a solar sail to modify its orbit, could theoretically hold itself in a geostationary "orbit" with different altitude and/or inclination from the "traditional" equatorial geostationary orbit.
When geostationary satellites run out of thruster fuel and are no longer able to stay in their allocated orbital position they are generally retired. The transponders and other onboard systems often outlive the thruster fuel and, by stopping N–S station keeping, some satellites can continue to be used in inclined orbits (where the orbital track appears to follow a figure-eight loop centred on the equator), or else be elevated to a "graveyard" disposal orbit. This process is becoming increasingly regulated and satellites must have a 90% chance of moving over 200km above the getostationary belt at end of life.
Space debris at geostationary orbits typically has a lower collision speed than at LEO since orbits are mostly synchronous, however the presence of satellites in eccentric orbits allows for collision at up to 4km/s. Although a collision is comparatively unlikely, GEO satellites have a limited ability to avoid any debris.
Debris less than 10cm in diameter can't be seen from the Earth making it difficult to assess their prevalence.
Despite efforts to reduce risk, spacecraft collisions have occurred. The European Space Agency telecom satellite Olympus-1 was struck by a meteoroid on 11 August 1993 and eventually moved to a graveyard orbit, and in 2006 the Russian Express-AM11 communications satellite was struck by an unknown object and rendered inoperable; although its engineers had enough contact time with the satellite to send it into a graveyard orbit. In 2017 both AMC-9 and Telkom-1 broke apart from an unknown cause.
A typical geostationary orbit has the following properties:
- Inclination: 0°
- Period: 1436 minutes (one sidereal day):121
- Eccentricity: 0
- Argument of perigee: undefined
- Semi-major axis: 42,164 km
A geostationary orbit can be achieved only at an altitude very close to 35,786 km (22,236 mi) and directly above the equator. This equates to an orbital velocity of 3.07 km/s (1.91 mi/s) and an orbital period of 1,436 minutes, one sidereal day. This ensures that the satellite will match the Earth's rotational period and has a stationary footprint on the ground. All geostationary satellites have to be located on this ring.
A combination of lunar gravity, solar gravity, and the flattening of the Earth at its poles causes a precession motion of the orbital plane of any geostationary object, with an orbital period of about 53 years and an initial inclination gradient of about 0.85° per year, achieving a maximal inclination of 15° after 26.5 years.:156 To correct for this orbital perturbation, regular orbital stationkeeping maneuvers are necessary, amounting to a delta-v of approximately 50 m/s per year.
A second effect to be taken into account is the longitudinal drift, caused by the asymmetry of the Earth – the equator is slightly elliptical.:156 There are two stable (at 75.3°E and 252°E) and two unstable (at 165.3°E and 14.7°W) equilibrium points. Any geostationary object placed between the equilibrium points would (without any action) be slowly accelerated towards the stable equilibrium position, causing a periodic longitude variation. The correction of this effect requires station-keeping maneuvers with a maximal delta-v of about 2 m/s per year, depending on the desired longitude.
In the absence of servicing missions from the Earth or a renewable propulsion method, the consumption of thruster propellant for station keeping places a limitation on the lifetime of the satellite. Hall-effect thrusters, which are currently in use, have the potential to prolong the service life of a satellite by providing high-efficiency electric propulsion.
Derivation of geostationary altitudeEdit
In any circular orbit, the centripetal force required to maintain the orbit (Fc) is provided by the gravitational force on the satellite (Fg). To calculate the geostationary orbit altitude, one begins with this equivalence:
The mass of the satellite m appears on both sides — geostationary orbit is independent of the mass of the satellite.[c] Calculating the geostationary altitude, therefore, simplifies down to calculating the altitude where the magnitudes of the centripetal acceleration required for orbital motion and the gravitational acceleration provided by Earth's gravity are equal.
The centripetal acceleration's magnitude is:
The magnitude of the gravitational acceleration is:
where M is the mass of Earth, 5.9736 × 1024 kg, and G is the gravitational constant, (6.67428 ± 0.00067) × 10−11 m3 kg−1 s−2.
Equating the two accelerations gives:
The product GM is known with much greater precision than either factor alone; it is known as the geocentric gravitational constant μ = 398,600.4418 ± 0.0008 km3 s−2. Hence
The angular speed ω is found by dividing the angle travelled in one revolution (360° = 2π rad) by the orbital period (the time it takes to make one full revolution). In the case of a geostationary orbit, the orbital period is one sidereal day, or 86164.09054 s). This gives
The resulting orbital radius is 42,164 kilometres (26,199 mi). Subtracting the Earth's equatorial radius, 6,378 kilometres (3,963 mi), gives the altitude of 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi).
Orbital speed is calculated by multiplying the angular speed by the orbital radius:
By the same formula, we can find the geostationary-type orbit of an object in relation to Mars (this type of orbit above is referred to as an areostationary orbit if it is above Mars). The geocentric gravitational constant GM (which is μ) for Mars has the value of 42,828 km3s−2, and the known rotational period (T) of Mars is 88,642.66 seconds. Since ω = 2π/T, using the formula above, the value of ω is found to be approx 7.088218×10−5 s−1. Thus r3 = 8.5243×1012 km3, whose cube root is 20,427 km (the orbital radius); subtracting the equatorial radius of Mars (3396.2 km) gives the orbital altitude of 17,031 km.
Orbital speed of a Mars geostationary orbit can be calculated as for Earth above:
- Orbital periods and speeds are calculated using the relations 4π2R3 = T2GM and V2R = GM, where R = radius of orbit in metres, T = orbital period in seconds, V = orbital speed in m/s, G = gravitational constant ≈ 6.673×10−11 Nm2/kg2, M = mass of Earth ≈ 5.98×1024 kg.
- Approximately 8.6 times when the moon is nearest (363 104 km ÷ 42 164 km) to 9.6 times when the moon is farthest (405,696 km ÷ 42,164 km).
- In the small-body approximation, the geostationary orbit is independent of the satellite's mass. For satellites having a mass less than M μerr/μ ≈ 1015 kg, that is, over a billion times that of the ISS, the error due to the approximation is smaller than the error on the universal geocentric gravitational constant (and thus negligible).
- "Ariane 5 User's Manual Issue 5 Revision 1" (PDF). arianespace. July 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "(Korvus's message is sent) to a small, squat building at the outskirts of Northern Landing. It was hurled at the sky. ... It ... arrived at the relay station tired and worn, ... when it reached a space station only five hundred miles above the city of North Landing." Smith, George O. (1976). The Complete Venus Equilateral. New York: Ballantine Books. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-345-28953-7.
- "It is therefore quite possible that these stories influenced me subconsciously when ... I worked out the principles of synchronous communications satellites ...", op. cit, p. x
- Clarke, Arthur C. (October 1945). "Extra-Terrestrial Relays — Can Rocket Stations Give Worldwide Radio Coverage?" (PDF). Wireless World. pp. 305–308. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
- Phillips Davis (ed.). "Basics of Space Flight Section 1 Part 5, Geostationary Orbits". NASA. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- Mills, Mike (3 August 1997). "Orbit Wars: Arthur C. Clarke and the Global Communications Satellite". The Washington Post Magazine. p. 12–13. Retrieved 25 August 2019. Cite magazine requires
- McClintock, Jack (9 November 2003). "Communications: Harold Rosen - The Seer of Geostationary Satellites". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- Perkins, Robert (31 January 2017). "Harold Rosen, 1926–2017". Caltech. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- Vartabedian, Ralph (26 July 2013). "How a satellite called Syncom changed the world". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- "World's First Geosynchronous Satellite Launched". History Channel. Foxtel. June 19, 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- Howell, Elizabeth (24 April 2015). "What Is a Geosynchronous Orbit?". Space.com. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- "ITU releases 2018 global and regional ICT estimates". International Telecommunications Union. 7 December 2018. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- Thompson, Geoff (24 April 2019). "Australia was promised superfast broadband with the NBN. This is what we got". ABC. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- Tibken, Shara (22 October 2018). "In farm country, forget broadband. You might not have internet at all. 5G is around the corner, yet pockets of America still can't get basic internet access". cnet. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- Freeman, Roger L. (July 22, 2002). "Satellite Communications". Reference Manual for Telecommunications Engineering. American Cancer Society. doi:10.1002/0471208051.fre018. ISBN 0471208051.
- Kohn, Daniel (6 March 2016). "The Teledesic Network: Using Low-Earth-Orbit Satellites to Provide Broadband, Wireless, Real-Time Internet Access Worldwide". Teledesic Corporation, USA.
- Soler, Tomás; Eisemann, David W. (August 1994). "Determination of Look Angles To Geostationary Communication Satellites" (PDF). Journal of Surveying Engineering. 120 (3): 123. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9453(1994)120:3(115). ISSN 0733-9453. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- History Committee of the American Astronautical Society (23 August 2010). Johnson, Stephen B. (ed.). Space Exploration and Humanity: A Historical Encyclopedia. 1. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 416. ISBN 978-1-85109-514-8. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "Satellite Status". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
- "Our Satellites". NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS).
- "Meteosat". EUMETSAT.int.
- "Satellite Launches for the Middle East and South Korea" (PDF). Arianespace. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Heinrich, Ralph (9 September 2014). "Airbus Defence and Space supports South Korean weather satellite programme". Airbus.
- Graham, William (6 October 2014). "Japan lofts Himawari 8 weather satellite via H-IIA rocket". NASASpaceFlight.com.
- "China plans to launch additional nine Fengyun meteorological satellites by 2025". GBTimes. 15 November 2018.
- "RAPID: Gateway to Indian Weather Satellite Data". Indian Space Research Organisation. 2 July 2019.
- "About environmental satellites". BOM. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
- "Coverage of a geostationary satellite at Earth". The Planetary Society.
- "NOAA Satellites, Scientists Monitor Mt. St. Helens for Possible Eruption". SpaceRef. 6 October 2004.
- "GOCI". NASA. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- "GOES-R: Today's Satellite for Tomorrow's Forecast Dataset". Science On a Sphere. NOAA.
- Tollefson, Jeff (March 2, 2018). "Latest US weather satellite highlights forecasting challenges". Nature. 555 (7695): 154. Bibcode:2018Natur.555..154T. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-02630-w. PMID 29517031.
- Hanson, Derek; Peronto, James; Hilderbrand, Douglas (November 12, 2015). "NOAA's Eyes in the Sky - After Five Decades of Weather Forecasting with Environmental Satellites, What Do Future Satellites Promise for Meteorologists and Society?". World Meteorological Organization.
- Tollefson, Jeff (5 March 2018). "Latest U.S. Weather Satellite Highlights Forecasting Challenges". Scientific American.
- "Satellite Navigation - WAAS - How It Works". FAA. 12 June 2019.
- "Augmentation System - an overview". ScienceDirect Topics.
- "Satellite Based Augmentation System test-bed project". Geoscience Australia. Archived from the original on 7 July 2019.
- "GAGAN System Certified for RNP0.1 Operations" (Press release). Indian Space Research Organisation. January 3, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-01-03.
- Radhakrishnan, S. Anil (January 11, 2014). "GAGAN system ready for operations". The Hindu.
- Ott, L. E. Mattok, C. (ed.). Ten Years of Experience with A Commercial Satellite Navigation System. International Cooperation in Satellite Communications, Proceedings of the AIAA/ESA Workshop. ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands. p. 101. Bibcode:1995ESASP.372..101O.
- "Launching Satellites — EUMETSAT". Eumetsat.
- Farber, Nicholas; Aresini, Andrea; Wauthier, Pascal; Francken, Philippe (September 2007). A general approach to the geostationary transfer orbit mission recovery. 20th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics.
- Henri, Yvon. "Orbit/Spectrum Allocation Procedures Registration Mechanism". Space Services Department. Archived from the original on March 27, 2009.
- "Space Services Division". ITU. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- Oduntan, Gbenga. "The Never Ending Dispute: Legal Theories on the Spatial Demarcation Boundary Plane between Airspace and Outer Space" (PDF). Hertfordshire Law Journal. 1 (2): 75.
- US patent 5183225, Forward, Robert, "STATITE: SPACECRAFT THAT UTILIZES SIGHT PRESSURE AND METHOD OF USE", published 1993-02-02
- Shi Hu-Li, Han Yan-Ben, Ma Li-Hua, Pei Jun, Yin Zhi-Qiang and Ji Hai-Fu (2010). Beyond Life-Cycle Utilization of Geostationary Communication Satellites in End-of-Life, Satellite Communications, Nazzareno Diodato (Ed.), ISBN 978-953-307-135-0, InTech, Hai-Fu, Ji; Zhi-Qiang, Yin; Jun, Pei; Li-Hua, Ma; Yan-Ben, Han; Hu-Li, Shi (2010-09-18). "Beyond Life-Cycle Utilization of Geostationary Communication Satellites in End-of-Life". Satellite Communications.
- "Inclined orbit operation". SatSig.net.
- EUMETSAT (3 April 2017). "Where old satellites go to die". phys.org.
- Marric Stephens (December 12, 2017). "Space debris threat to geosynchronous satellites has been drastically underestimated". Physics World.
- Caleb Henry (August 30, 2017). "ExoAnalytic video shows Telkom-1 satellite erupting debris". SpaceNews.com.
- "The Olympus failure" ESA press release, 26 August 1993. Archived 11 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Notification for Express-AM11 satellite users in connection with the spacecraft failure" Russian Satellite Communications Company, 19 April 2006.
- Dunstan, James E. (January 30, 2018). "Do we care about orbital debris at all?". SpaceNews.com.
- "AMC 9 Satellite Anomaly associated with Energetic Event & sudden Orbit Change – Spaceflight101". spaceflight101.com. 2017-06-20.
- Wertz, James Richard; Larson, Wiley J. (1999). Larson, Wiley J.; Wertz, James R. (eds.). Space Mission Analysis and Design. Microcosm Press and Kluwer Academic Publishers. Bibcode:1999smad.book.....W. ISBN 1-881883-10-8.
- Anderson, Paul; et al. (2015). Operational Considerations of GEO Debris Synchronization Dynamics (PDF). 66th International Astronautical Congress. Jerusalem, Israel. IAC-15,A6,7,3,x27478.
- Dundeck, M; Doveil, F; Arcis, N; Zurbach, S (2012). Plasma propulsion for geostationary satellites fortelecommunication and interplanetary missions. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/29/1/012010.
- Kelly, Patrick; Erwin,, Richard S.; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Mazal, Leonel (2016). Solar radiation pressure applications on geostationary satellites (PDF). Proceedings of the 2016 AAS GP & C Conference. American Astronautical Society.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- Edited by P. Kenneth Seidelmann, "Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac", University Science Books,1992, p. 700.
- Orbital Mechanics (Rocket and Space Technology)
- List of satellites in geostationary orbit
- Clarke Belt Snapshot Calculator
- 3D Real Time Satellite Tracking
- Geostationary satellite orbit overview
- Daily animation of the Earth, made by geostationary satellite 'Electro L' photos Satellite shoots 48 images of the planet every day.