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Gamalama is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire Ternate island in Indonesia. The island lies off the western shore of Halmahera island in the north of the Maluku Islands. For centuries, Ternate was a center of Portuguese and Dutch forts for spice trade, which have accounted for thorough reports of Gamalama's volcanic activities.

Pulau Ternate
Ternate, Maluku Islands, Indonesia 2.jpg
Highest point
Elevation1,715 m (5,627 ft) [1]
Prominence1,715 m (5,627 ft) [2]
Coordinates00°48′33″N 127°20′00″E / 0.80917°N 127.33333°E / 0.80917; 127.33333Coordinates: 00°48′33″N 127°20′00″E / 0.80917°N 127.33333°E / 0.80917; 127.33333[2]
Gamalama is located in Indonesia
Location in Indonesia of the island
LocationTernate, Maluku Islands, Indonesia
Mountain typeStratovolcano
Last eruptionOctober 2018 (ongoing)

An eruption in 1775 caused the deaths of approximately 1300 people.[3]

On December 4, 2011 Mount Gamalama erupted, ejecting material up to 2,000 meters into the air. Thousands of residents in nearby Ternate City fled due to ash and dust particles raining down on the town.[4] Finally on December 27 some 4 people died and dozens injured from debris falls (lahar) after a month of activity.[5]

More eruptions occurred in September 2012.[6]

An eruption on December 18, 2014, deposited five centimeters of ash on the runway of Babullah Airport in Ternate, closing the airport.[7]

Depiction of Gamalama erupting in the early 1700s with a Portuguese fort shown.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Gamalama". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-12-13.
  2. ^ a b "Mountains of the Indonesian Archipelago" Listed as Pulau Ternate. Retrieved 2012-01-22.
  3. ^ "Eruption of the Gamalama volcano". December 7, 2011.
  4. ^ "Thousands flee as Indonesian volcano erupts". December 5, 2011.
  5. ^ "Most Popular E-mail Newsletter". USA Today. 2011-12-28.
  6. ^ "Indonesia's Mount Gamalama erupts spewing ash and lava". BBC News. 2012-09-17.
  7. ^ "Babullah Airport Shut as Mount Gamalama Erupts". 2014-12-19.

External linksEdit