Gamal Al Din Mohammed Hosni Ei Sayed Mubarak (Arabic: جمال الدين محمد حسنى سيد مبارك, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [ɡæˈmæːl edˈdiːn mæˈħæmmæd ˈħosni ˈsæjjed moˈbɑːɾɑk]), (born 27 December 1963), is the younger of the two sons of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and former First Lady Suzanne Mubarak. In contrast to his older brother Alaa, Gamal had pursued an active public profile and was starting to wield some influence on political life in the country before the revolution of early 2011.
Gamal Mubarak during the World Economic Forum on the Middle East 2006
Gamal Al Din Mohammed Hosni Ei Sayed Mubarak
27 December 1963
|Alma mater||St. George's College, Cairo|
American University in Cairo (MBA)
|Title||Assistant Secretary General of the National Democratic Party|
Secretary of the Policy Committee of the National Democratic Party
|Political party||National Democratic Party|
|Spouse(s)||Khadiga El Gammal|
Prior to the revolution, Gamal was deputy secretary-general of the then-ruling and now-dissolved National Democratic Party, and head of its influential policies committee.
In 2014 and 2015, he was convicted of political corruption for diverting nearly $20 million in state funds to private use, along with his father and brother, and sentenced to four years in prison.
Within the family, under his half-British mother, his name is 'Jimmy', while his brother Alaa is 'Alan'.
Early life and careerEdit
Mubarak's given name, Gamal, comes from Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser. For his early education, he attended St. George's College, Cairo before entering the American University in Cairo. He graduated with a business administration degree and he claims he also earned an MBA from the university. He began his professional career working for Bank of America. Mubarak left Bank of America to set up London-based Medinvest Associates Ltd, which manages a private equity fund, and to do some corporate finance consultancy work.
Inheritance of powerEdit
The grooming of Gamal Mubarak to be his father's successor as the next president of Egypt became increasingly evident at around 2000. With no vice-president, and with no heir-apparent in sight, Gamal started enjoying considerable attention in Egyptian state-run media. On 3 February 2000 Hosni Mubarak appointed him to the General Secretariat of the ruling National Democratic Party. Bashar al-Assad's rise to power in Syria in June 2000 just hours after Hafez al-Assad's death, sparked a heated debate in the Egyptian press regarding the prospects for a similar scenario occurring in Cairo.
Both President Mubarak and his son denied the possibility of any inheritance of power in Egypt. More recently, this claim was made in early 2006, when Gamal Mubarak declared repeatedly that he had no aspiration to succeed his father, but that he would maintain his position in the then-ruling NDP as deputy secretary general, a post he held in addition to heading the party's policy committee, allegedly the most important organ of the NDP.
In September 2004, several political groups (most are unofficial), on both the left and the right, announced their sharp opposition to the inheritance of power. They demanded political change and a fair, multi-candidate election.
On 26 February 2005, Mubarak ordered the constitution changed to allow multi-candidate presidential elections before September 2005 by asking parliament to amend Article 76 of the Egyptian constitution. This change in the constitution was seen then by some analysts and senior judicial figures as a ploy to seamlessly allow Gamal Mubarak to inherit the top position in Egypt. According to this view, Gamal Mubarak would be one of the candidates in a presidential elections and would be supported by the ruling party and the government-controlled media. Since remaining serious candidates would be disqualified by the NDP-controlled People's Assembly leaving only the less popular candidates, the inheritance of power would be accomplished through a "democratic" process. However these were all merely assumptions made by political activists, analysts, and opponents.
End of his father's presidencyEdit
Some political analysts speculate that the alleged deteriorating state of the Egyptian economy in the last days of Hosni Mubarak's rule was caused by Gamal and his friends taking over as political advisers to Mubarak. On the other hand, a wide range of analysts credit Gamal Mubarak for reviving the Egyptian economy over the previous five years, from a stagnant, mostly state-run economy to a largely free market system that enjoyed five percent GDP growth.
During the first week of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution there were unconfirmed reports and speculation that Gamal might have left Egypt during the protests. However, on 3 February 2011, Gamal was present for an ABC News interview of his father in Cairo.
Reuters Africa reported that a fight took place between him and his older brother, Alaa Mubarak. Alaa supposedly accused Gamal of ruining their father's last days in power and humiliating him.
Political corruption convictionsEdit
Following the stepping down of Hosni Mubarak, media sources started to point to the 'suspicious' financial dealings of Gamal Mubarak. On 28 February 2011, the Egyptian daily Al-Ahram published a list of bank accounts allegedly belonging to Gamal Mubarak. Al-Ahram reported that the Chief Prosecutor of Egypt received a report that Gamal Mubarak inexplicably amassed significant sums of money that were deposited in these accounts. This allegation came on background of a decision from the Prosecutor General of Egypt to freeze all bank accounts belonging to the Mubarak family, including Gamal Mubarak. The Egyptian Appeals Court ordered that Mubarak's financial status is reviewed by the court on 5 March 2011. It is expected that the court will render a decision in that hearing whether to uphold the decision to freeze Mubarak's assets.
On 13 April 2011, Gamal was imprisoned for 15 days pending investigations for corruption, abuse of power, and for his alleged role in causing the fatalities and casualties of peaceful protesters during the revolution which was sparked on 25 January 2011. An official investigation accused Gamal Mubarak of using his influence in the National Democratic Party and as son of the president to award contracts to foreign companies in which he was a partner. He appeared in court, alongside his father and brother. Gamal, his brother is still currently in prison. Whereas his father has been released from jail but put on house arrest for 15 days.
On 21 May 2014, a Cairo court convicted Mubarak and his sons Alaa and Gamal of embezzling the equivalent of US$17.6 million of state funds intended for renovation of presidential palaces but were instead diverted to upgrade private family homes. The court ordered the repayment of US$17.6 million, fined the trio US$2.9 million, and sentenced Mubarak to three years in prison and each of his sons to four years. They were retried and convicted again in May 2015. In October 2015 he and his brother were released from prison, based on time already served.
In September 2018, Gamal was arrested along with his brother Alaa and accused of stock market manipulation.
- AlJazeeraEnglish (30 January 2011). "Where in the world is Gamal Mubarak?". YouTube. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- The Family, broadcast by Al Jazeera English, 28 June 2012 (synopsis)
- Coughlin, Con (3 August 2013). "Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood should have learnt from Nasser". Salon. Archived from the original on 3 August 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- MacFARQUHAR, Neil; ROHDE, David; ROSTON, Aram (12 February 2011). "Mubarak Family Riches Attract New Focus". New York Times. New York City. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
- "Interview with MR. GAMAL MUBARAK Chairman Of Medinvest Associates Ltd". Winne.com. 14 January 1999. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- Aziz, Muhammad Abdul and Hussein, Youssef (2002) "The President, the Son, and the Military: Succession in Egypt" Arab Studies Journal 9/10: pp. 73–88
- Brownlee, Jason (2008) "The Heir Apparency of Gamal Mubarak" Archived 4 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine Arab Studies Journal pp. 36–56
- "Chronology: Egypt". The Middle East Journal. 54 (3). Summer 2000. Retrieved 3 January 2014. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Sobelman, Daniel (2001) "Gamal Mubarak, President of Egypt?" Middle East Quarterly 8(2): pp. 31–40
- "Book review: Gamal's gang - Egypt Independent". Egypt Independent. 13 April 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/egypt/?id=16096 Archived 18 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine
-  Archived 12 September 2004 at the Wayback Machine
- "Egypt insider: Mubarak's fall was years in the making". Mc Clatchydc. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- News, A. B. C. (19 June 2012). "Feb. 3, 2011: Amanpour's Exclusive Mubarak Interview". ABC News.
- "Factbox - Omar Suleiman, new Egyptian vice-president". 29 January 2017 – via Reuters.
- "Sons of Egypt's Mubarak nearly came to blows-paper". Reuters. 13 February 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "حسابات سرية لعائلة مبارك بالبنوك المصرية 147مليون دولار لسوزان و200 مليون لعلاء وجمال". Ahram. 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 18 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "مارس أولى جلسات النظر في تجميد أرصدة مبارك..و26مارس محاكمة رشيد وعز وعسل الد". Dostor. 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 8 March 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Mubarak brothers accused of exploiting influence for gain, Egypt Independent, 28 June 2012
- "Egypt: Mubarak's sons, PM acquitted of corruption". NewsDaily. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Malsin, Jared (9 May 2015). "Egypt: Hosni Mubarak sentenced to three years in prison" – via The Guardian.
- Press, Associated (12 October 2015). "Egypt court orders release of Hosni Mubarak's sons" – via The Guardian.
- "Egypt ex-President Mubarak's sons arrested". BBC News. 15 September 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- Interview with Gamal Mubarak: "We Need Audacious Leaders", Middle East Quarterly, Winter 2009
- Egypt: Time of the Reformers, Interview by Pascal Drouhaud, Politique internationale, n° 120, Paris, 2008
- Daniel Sobelman, "Gamal Mubarak: President of Egypt?", Middle East Quarterly, Spring 2001
- BBC: "Mubarak son raises public profile", 10 September 2004.
- MSNBC: "Stage set for political dynasty in Egypt?", 28 July 2004.
- Foreign Policy: "Is Gamal Mubarak the Best Hope for Egyptian Democracy?". Mideast. 20 September 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2011.