Fuad II of Egypt

Fuad II (Arabic: فؤاد الثاني, full name: Ahmed Fuad bin Farouk bin Ismail bin Ibrahim bin Muhammad Ali; born 16 January 1952), or alternatively Ahmed Fuad II, is a member of the Egyptian Muhammad Ali dynasty. He formally reigned as the last King of Egypt and the Sudan from July 1952 to June 1953, when he was deposed.

Fuad II
Fuad II 2015 Interview.jpg
King of Egypt and the Sudan
Reign26 July 1952 – 18 June 1953
PredecessorFarouk I
Successor
RegentMuhammad Abdel Moneim
BornAhmed Fuad bin Farouk bin Ismail bin Ibrahim bin Muhammad Ali
(1952-01-16) 16 January 1952 (age 71)
Abdeen Palace, Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt
Spouse
(m. 1976; div. 1996)
Issue
DynastyMuhammad Ali
FatherFarouk I
MotherNarriman Sadek
ReligionSunni Islam
SignatureFuad II's signature

Birth and reignEdit

 
King Farouk and Queen Narriman with Prince Fuad, January 1952

The son of King Farouk and his second wife Queen Narriman, Crown Prince Ahmed Fuad[a] was born on 16 January 1952 in Abdeen Palace.[2] He was delivered at 8:30 a.m. and named after his grandfather Fuad I.[3] Fuad had three half-sisters from Farouk's previous marriage with Queen Farida: princesses Farial, Fawzia and Fadia. As women could not inherit the Egyptian throne Farouk's first cousin, Prince Mohammed Ali Tewfik, was heir presumptive until Fuad's birth.[3][4] Immediately following his birth, Fuad was granted the title of Prince of the Sa'id.[5][6] He was styled accordingly as Ahmed Fuad, Prince of the Sa'id.[7]

On 23 July 1952, the Free Officers led by Mohamed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser orchestrated a military coup, thus beginning the Egyptian revolution.[8] On 26 July, Farouk was ordered to abdicate in favour of the crown prince and leave Egypt.[9][10] Farouk abdicated and went into exile in Italy. His family, including Fuad, joined him in exile.[11] By stepping down, Farouk had wished that the forces opposing the monarchy would be placated, and that Fuad could unify the country during his reign.[1]: 129 

RegencyEdit

On Farouk's abdication, the army proclaimed that Fuad was now King Fuad II of Egypt and the Sudan.[9][b] The country was now ruled by Nasser, Naguib and the other Free Officers.[8] Naguib promised to maintain a constitutional monarchy with a regency council holding power until Fuad came of age.[15] Fuad's constitutional powers were assumed by the Cabinet until 2 August 1952, when a regency body, but not a council, was established.[16] Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim was appointed regent and led the body.[1]: 94  The regency body had no actual powers, however, these having been effectively assumed by the Revolutionary Command Council which was led by Naguib. The body was dissolved on 7 September 1952 and Moneim was appointed the sole prince regent, though he still had no actual powers when serving in this role.[16][1]: 94 

The monarchy was formally abolished on 18 June 1953: Egypt was declared a republic for the first time in its history, and Naguib became its first ever President. Fuad was officially deposed and stripped of his royal titles.

Life in exileEdit

 
Narriman, Fuad and Farouk in exile in Capri, Italy, 1953

Following Fuad's deposition,[17][18] Fuad and his half-sisters were sent to live in Switzerland while Farouk remained in Italy, settling in Rome. Queen Narriman returned to Egypt in 1953 after wanting a divorce, and Farouk insisted that Fuad remain abroad.[19][11] In 1958, Fuad was stripped of his Egyptian citizenship.[20]

Farouk would visit Fuad two or three times each year before the former's unexpected death, possibly from a heart attack, in 1965, when Fuad was 13 years-old. Fuad believes that Farouk was "poisoned by enemies".[19] When he died, there were rumours in the press that he had been poisoned by Egyptian intelligence, though there is no known evidence to confirm this.[21] After Farouk's death, Fuad was guaranteed protection by Prince Rainier III of Monaco and his wife Princess Grace.[2] Fuad would later become friends with Rainier in his early adulthood, when he visited Monte Carlo every summer.[11] He has a Monégasque passport, on which he is named His Royal Highness Prince Ahmed Fouad Farouk.[19][11]

Growing up, Fuad and his half-sisters lived in Cully, a small village on Lake Geneva, under the care of a nanny, governess and bodyguard. Fuad attended the local public school where he was bullied and then went to middle school in Lausanne, before later attending the Institut Le Rosey, an elite and prestigious private boarding school.[22][11] He completed his secondary education, obtaining a French baccalaureate, before studying at the University of Geneva.[22] He graduated with a degree in politics and economics in 1975.[20]

In 1973, President Anwar Sadat lifted Fuad's and his half-sisters' exile.[23] Fuad's Egyptian citizenship was restored in 1974. He has occasionally visited Egypt ever since,[22] with his first visit occurring in 1991.[19] During Hosni Mubarak's presidency, Fuad would notify the president of his arrival, who would then guarantee his personal safety during his visit.[22] On his Egyptian passport he has no titles and is simply identified as Ahmed Fuad.[19]

MarriageEdit

 
Fuad and Fadila's wedding in 1977

Fuad immigrated to Paris after graduating from university.[22] In Paris, he set up a real estate business and married Dominique-France Loeb-Picard, a Jewish woman of Alsatian origin, in a civil ceremony in Paris on 16 April 1976.[24][25] She then converted to Sunni Islam,[2] and the two had a religious wedding in Monaco on 5 October 1977.[24][25] Leob-Picard changed her name to Fadila Farouk.[26] Egyptian monarchists addressed her as Queen Fadila of Egypt,[24] a nickname coined by the media.[22] She then formally assumed the title of Queen of Egypt.[1]: 129  In 1996, she and Fuad divorced, and he stripped her of her title.[1]: 129–130 

After years of divorce proceedings which began in 1999,[27][26] the marriage was formally dissolved in 2008.[1]: 129  Fuad found the divorce "deeply painful" and suffered from depression and poor health.[19][25] Since the divorce Fadila has been known as Princess Fadila of Egypt.[25]

IssueEdit

Fuad and Fadila had three children before their divorce: Prince Muhammad Ali, Prince of the Sa'id (born 5 February 1979), Princess Fawzia-Latifa (born 12 February 1982) and Prince Fakhruddin (born 25 August 1987).[1]: 130  The family lived together in Paris until the parents' divorce.[25] After the divorce, Fuad was estranged with his children until c. 2011.[19] Fuad has four grandchildren.[25]

Later lifeEdit

After his divorce with Fadila, Fuad returned to Switzerland to stay close with his half-sisters.[18]

In May 2010, he recorded a television interview with ONTV and talked about his visits to Egypt, how he felt about the Egyptian people, and their view of his late father.

Fuad II supported the candidacy of Abdel Fattah el-Sisi as President of Egypt in October 2013.[28]

Ancestry and stylesEdit

Styles of
Ahmed Fuad Farouk
 
Reference styleHis Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty
Patrilineal descent
  1. Ibrahim Agha
  2. Muhammad Ali of Egypt, 1769–1849
  3. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, 1789–1848
  4. Isma'il Pasha, 1830–1895
  5. Fuad I of Egypt, 1868–1936
  6. Farouk of Egypt, 1920–1965
  7. Fuad II of Egypt, b. 1952

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Fuad's full name is Ahmed Fuad bin Farouk bin Ismail bin Ibrahim bin Muhammad Ali.[1]: 129 
  2. ^ It was also reported that Faud was proclaimed as King Ahmed Fuad II of Egypt and the Sudan.[12][13][14]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Rosten, David B. (3 December 2015). The Last Cheetah of Egypt: A Narrative History of Egyptian Royalty from 1805 to 1953. ISBN 9781491779392.
  2. ^ a b c Fontaine, Nicolas (16 January 2022). "Les 70 ans du roi Fouad II d'Égypte" [70 years of King Fouad II of Egypt]. Histoires Royales (in French). Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  3. ^ a b "King Farouk Has An Heir At Last". The Sydney Morning Herald. Vol. 35, no. 591. 17 January 1952. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  4. ^ Bardakçı, Murat (2017). Neslishah: The Last Ottoman Princess. Oxford University Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-977-416-837-6.
  5. ^ "Queen Narriman of Egypt Has Son; Joyful Nation Greets Farouk's Heir; 6 1/2-Pound Crown Prince Named Ahmed Fuad After Grandfather, the Late King -- 101-Gun Salute Sounds Over Cairo". The New York Times. 17 January 1952. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  6. ^ "EGYPT: Blessed Day". TIME. 28 January 1952. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  7. ^ "Farouk's heir". Newsweek. Vol. 39. 1952. p. 34. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  8. ^ a b Morgan, Robert (21 September 2016). History of the Coptic Orthodox People and the Church of Egypt. FriesenPress. p. 460. ISBN 978-1-4602-8027-0. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  9. ^ a b "Farouk abdicates". LIFE Magazine. Vol. 33, no. 5. 4 August 1952. p. 32. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  10. ^ Crompton, Paul (25 January 2014). "The overthrow of Egypt's King Farouk: a dramatic departure from power". Al Arabiya English. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  11. ^ a b c d e Lagnado, Lucette (18 September 2010). "The Lonely King Without a Throne". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  12. ^ "British warships sail for Egypt". Manchester Guardian. 28 July 1952. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  13. ^ The Unicorn Book of 1952. Joseph Laffan Morse. Unicorn Books. 1952. p. 226. Retrieved 10 December 2022.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  14. ^ Britannica Book of the Year 1953 (PDF). London: Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1953. p. 10. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  15. ^ "Simple life for a King". LIFE Magazine. Vol. 33, no. 6. 11 August 1952. p. 24. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  16. ^ a b Rizk, Yunan Labib (27 January – 2 February 2005). "Royal help". Al-Ahram. Archived from the original on 24 October 2005. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  17. ^ Ramadan, Nada (4 August 2015). "'Last King of Egypt' cancels Suez Canal visit". The New Arab. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  18. ^ a b Victor, Dalia; Farouk, Sanaa (16 March 2022). "Egypt's last monarch visits Egypt". Watani. Retrieved 11 December 2022.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Whitworth, Damian (3 February 2011). "Egypt's last king on life in exile". The Times. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  20. ^ a b Natal, Frederic de. "Le roi Fouad II s'adresse aux égyptiens" [King Fouad II addresses the Egyptians]. Monarchies et Dynasties Dumonde (in French). Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  21. ^ Akyeampong, Emmanuel Kwaku; Gates Jr., Henry Louis (2 February 2012). Dictionary of African Biography. Vol. 1–6. OUP USA. p. 351. ISBN 9780195382075.
  22. ^ a b c d e f Maurisse, Marie (20 March 2011). "Fouad II d'Égypte, le roi oublié" [Fuad II of Egypt, the forgotten king]. Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  23. ^ Arrott, Elizabeth (2 December 2009). "Exiled Egyptian Princess Mourned in Cairo". Voice of America. Retrieved 11 December 2022.
  24. ^ a b c Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1980). "The Royal House of Egypt". Burke's Royal Families of the World. Vol. II: Africa & the Middle East. London: Burke's Peerage. pp. 20–37. ISBN 978-0-85011-029-6. OCLC 18496936.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Bloks, Moniek (14 May 2021). "Dominique-France Loeb-Picard - A marriage in exile". History of Royal Women. Retrieved 11 December 2022.
  26. ^ a b Webster, Paul (16 September 2002). "Egypt's last queen ousted from palatial Parisian apartment". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 December 2022.
  27. ^ Fontaine, Nicolas (14 August 2019). "Le roi Fouad d'Égypte en vacances avec sa famille dans son pays" [King Fouad of Egypt on holiday with his family in his country]. Histoires Royales (in French). Retrieved 11 December 2022.
  28. ^ "Je suis le dernier roi d'Égypte". L'Illustré. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  29. ^ Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1980). "The French Ancestry of King Farouk of Egypt". Burke's Royal Families of the World. Vol. II: Africa & the Middle East. London: Burke's Peerage. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-85011-029-6. OCLC 18496936.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Fuad II of Egypt
Born: 16 January 1952
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Egypt and the Sudan
26 July 1952 – 18 June 1953
Succeeded byas President of Egypt
Egyptian royalty
Preceded by Prince of the Sa'id
16 January 1952 – 26 July 1952
Vacant
Title next held by
Muhammad Ali
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
Monarchy abolished
— TITULAR —
King of Egypt and the Sudan
18 June 1953 – present
Incumbent
Heir apparent:
Muhammad Ali