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Frederick County, Virginia

Frederick County, Virginia
Old Frederick County Courthouse 1.jpg
Seal of Frederick County, Virginia
Map of Virginia highlighting Frederick County
Location in the U.S. state of Virginia
Map of the United States highlighting Virginia
Virginia's location in the U.S.
Founded 1743
Named for Frederick, Prince of Wales
Seat Winchester
Largest town Stephens City
 • Total 416 sq mi (1,077 km2)
 • Land 414 sq mi (1,072 km2)
 • Water 2 sq mi (5 km2), 0.5%
Population (est.)
 • (2015) 83,199
 • Density 200/sq mi (77/km²)
Congressional district 10th
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4

Frederick County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 78,305.[1] Its county seat is Winchester.[2] The county was formed in 1743 by the splitting of Orange County. It is Virginia's northernmost county.

Frederick County is included in the Winchester, VA-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area.



The area that would become Frederick County, Virginia was inhabited and transited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years before European colonization. The "Indian Road" refers to a historic pathway made by local tribes.

Frederick County was established in 1743 from parts of Orange County. (At that time, "Old Frederick County" encompassed all or part of four counties in present-day Virginia — Shenandoah, Clarke, Warren, and Frederick — and five in present-day West VirginiaHardy, Hampshire, Berkeley, Jefferson and Morgan.) The Virginia Assembly named the new county for Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales[3] (1707–1751), the eldest son of King George II of Great Britain.

Colonial EraEdit

As Commander-in-Chief of the new Colonial Virginia regiment in 1754, Colonel George Washington's headquarters were located in Winchester before and during the French and Indian War. He resigned from military service in 1758; only to be appointed General by the Continental Congress sixteen years later. Meanwhile, Washington represented Frederick County in his first elective office, having been elected to the House of Burgesses in 1758 and 1761. Daniel Morgan was another famous General during the American Revolutionary War, from (present day Clarke County).

War of 1812Edit

American Civil WarEdit

Four (alkaline, saline, chalybeate, and sulphuretted) types of mineral water springs naturally occur on the land that would latter be named Rock Enon Springs.[4]:868 The area was once called Capper Springs, named for area settler John Capper.[5]:57 William Marker bought the 942 acres (381 ha) in 1856 and built a hotel, the first building of the Rock Enon Springs Resort, that survived the American Civil War.[6] On March 24, 1899 the Shenandoah Valley National Bank purchased the property for $3,500.[7]:9 During the summer of 1914 botanists found polypodium vulgare, phegopteris hexagonoptera, adiantum pedatum, pteris aquilina, and cheilanthes lanosa on the property.[8] The idea that soaking in the spring water had medical value was likely a large part of the tourism.[9] In 1944, when that healing idea was likely no longer generally accepted as true, the Glaize family sold the property to the Shenandoah Area Council who turned what was once a resort into Camp Rock Enon.[6] In 1944 the 5 acres (0.020 km2) Miller Lake was created by adding a 200 feet (61 m) earth dam across Laruel Run using equipment owned by the Federal Fish Hatchery in Leestown.[10]:M4 In 1958 "walnut, chestnut and persimmon trees" were planted on the property.[11]:50

Winchester changed hands between the Confederate and Union Armies on average once every three weeks during the war. Many battles were fought in Frederick County. Some of those battles include:

The first constitution of West Virginia provided for Frederick County to be added to the new state if approved by a local election.[12] Unlike those of neighboring Berkeley and Jefferson counties, Frederick County residents voted to remain in Virginia despite being occupied by the Union Army at the time.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 416 square miles (1,080 km2), of which 414 square miles (1,070 km2) is land and 2 square miles (5.2 km2) (0.5%) is water.[13] This is the northernmost county in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Adjacent countiesEdit

National protected areasEdit


Census Pop.
1790 19,681
1800 24,744 25.7%
1810 22,574 −8.8%
1820 24,706 9.4%
1830 26,046 5.4%
1840 14,242 −45.3%
1850 15,975 12.2%
1860 16,546 3.6%
1870 16,596 0.3%
1880 17,553 5.8%
1890 17,880 1.9%
1900 13,239 −26.0%
1910 12,787 −3.4%
1920 12,461 −2.5%
1930 13,167 5.7%
1940 14,008 6.4%
1950 17,537 25.2%
1960 21,941 25.1%
1970 28,893 31.7%
1980 34,150 18.2%
1990 45,723 33.9%
2000 59,209 29.5%
2010 78,305 32.3%
Est. 2015 83,199 [14] 6.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[15]
1790–1960[16] 1900–1990[17]
1990–2000[18] 2010–2012[1]
The drop from 1830 to 1840 was because
Clarke and Warren counties were split off.

As of the census[19] of 2000, there were 59,209 people, 22,097 households, and 16,727 families residing in the county. The population density was 143 people per square mile (55/km²). There were 23,319 housing units at an average density of 56/square mile (22/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 94.99% White, 2.62% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.56% from other races, and 1.01% from two or more races. 1.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 22,097 households out of which 36.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.50% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.30% were non-families. 19.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.02.

In the county, the population was spread out with 26.40% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 31.90% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, and 10.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 100.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.70 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $46,941, and the median income for a family was $52,281. Males had a median income of $35,705 versus $25,046 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,080. About 4.00% of families and 6.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.30% of those under age 18 and 6.90% of those age 65 or over.


Board of SupervisorsEdit

Chairman: Richard C. Shickle (R)

Back Creek District: Gary A. Lofton (R)

Gainesboro District: Robert Hess (R)

Opequon District: Robert Wells (R)

Red Bud District: Blaine P. Dunn (R)

Shawnee District: Gene E. Fisher (R)

Stonewall District: Charles S. DeHaven, Jr. (R)

Constitutional OfficersEdit

Clerk of the Circuit Court: Rebecca P. "Becky" Hogan (D)

Commissioner of the Revenue: Ellen E. Murphy (R)

Commonwealth's Attorney: Ross Spicer (R)

Sheriff: R.T. "Bob" Williamson (R)

Treasurer: C. William Orndoff, Jr. (R)

Frederick is represented by Republican Jill Holtzman Vogel in the Virginia Senate, Republicans J. Randy Minchew, Mark Berg, and Joe T. May in the Virginia House of Delegates, and Republican Barbara Comstock in the U.S. House of Representatives.



Frederick County is served by Frederick County Public Schools, which includes several elementary, middle, and high schools. Frederick County is also part of the region served by the Mountain Vista Governor's School that offers upper level classes to intellectually gifted high school students.


Elementary SchoolsEdit

  • Redbud Run Elementary School
  • Greenwood Mill Elementary School
  • Apple Pie Ridge Elementary School
  • Evendale Elementary School
  • Bass Hoover Elementary School
  • Orchard View Elementary School
  • Indian Hollow Elementary School
  • Gore Elementary School
  • Gainsboro Elementary School
  • Middletown Elementary School
  • Armel Elementary School
  • Stonewall Elementary School

Middle SchoolsEdit

  • Admiral Richard E. Byrd Middle School
  • Frederick County Middle School
  • James Wood Middle School
  • Robert E. Aylor Middle School

High SchoolsEdit





See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 131. 
  4. ^ Engelhard, G.P. (1902). The Standard medical directory of North America. p. 924. 
  5. ^ Peale, Albert Charles (1886). Lists and Analyses of the Mineral Springs of the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 235. 
  6. ^ a b Bell Jr., Stewart. Rock Enon Springs Records #1303. Winchester, VA, USA: Handley Regional Library. Retrieved 27 February 2017. 
  7. ^ "Rock Enon Springs Sold: Property Purchased by Bank to Protect Deed of Trust". Washington Post. March 25, 1899. 
  8. ^ Tuttle, Mary Louise (1915). "Fern Trips in Virginia". American Fern. 5 (4): 108–113. doi:10.2307/1544094. 
  9. ^ Tourism:
    Bell Jr., Stewart. Rock Enon Springs Records #1303. Winchester, VA, USA: Handley Regional Library. Retrieved 27 February 2017. 
    "The Movements of Officials". Washington Post. July 24, 1888. :2
    "At Rock Enon Springs Several Washingtonians Enjoy Vacations in Quiet Virginia Resort" (Special). Washington Post. July 30, 1911. :E1
  10. ^ "Dam to Back Up Water For Scout Camp Lake". Washington Post. Feb 27, 1944. 
  11. ^ Annual Report, Volume 49. Northern Nut Growers Association. 1958. 
  12. ^, Article I, Section 2
  13. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  14. ^ "County Totals Dataset: Population, Population Change and Estimated Components of Population Change: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Archived from the original on July 8, 2016. Retrieved July 2, 2016. 
  15. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  18. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  19. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 

External linksEdit