"Fourth World" is a storyline told through a metaseries of connected comic book titles written and drawn by Jack Kirby and published by DC Comics from 1970 to 1973. Although they were not marketed under this title until the August–September 1971 issues of New Gods and Forever People, the terms Fourth World and Jack Kirby's Fourth World have gained usage in the years since.
|"Fourth World" thematic stories|
|Created by||Jack Kirby|
|Formats||Multiple, thematically linked|
|Number of issues||59|
|Fourth World by Jack Kirby Omnibus||ISBN 1-4012-7475-7|
|Omnibus Volume 1||ISBN 1-4012-1344-8|
|Omnibus Volume 2||ISBN 140121357X|
|Omnibus Volume 3||ISBN 1401214851|
|Omnibus Volume 4||ISBN 1401215831|
Initial 1970s comicsEdit
As the newsstand distribution system for comics began to break down, Jack Kirby foresaw a day when comics would need to find alternate venues for sale. Toward this end, Kirby envisioned a finite series that would be serialized and collected in one tome after the series had concluded. He began the "Fourth World" in Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen #133 (Oct. 1970). DC Comics had planned to introduce the "Fourth World" titles in the November 1970 issue of their preview omnibus title, Showcase. Kirby reportedly objected to this, and Showcase was cancelled. This delayed the introduction of the "Fourth World" titles until the following year. The three original titles constituting the "Fourth World" were The Forever People, Mister Miracle, and The New Gods.
Unhappy with Marvel Comics at the time, as he had created or co-created a plethora of characters without having copyright or creative custody of them, he turned to rival publisher DC Comics, with his sketches and designs for a new group of heroes and villains. As author Marc Flores, who writes under the pen name Ronin Ro, described:
The idea of the New Gods had come to Jack years earlier, when he was plotting 90 percent of the "Tales of Asgard" stories in Thor. He wanted to have two planets at war and end with Ragnarok, the battle that would kill Thor's lucrative pantheon. Instead, he tried the idea in his Inhumans stories. Now he was presenting it in its original context. Though he wouldn't ever say it publicly, the New Gods books started right after the gods in Thor killed one another. The first page of Orion of the New Gods showed the same scenes from Thor—a planet torn in half and armored gods holding swords and dying on a fiery battleground.
"The Fourth World" dealt with the battle between good and evil as represented by the worlds of New Genesis and Apokolips. Darkseid, the evil lord of Apokolips, seeks the Anti-Life Equation which will allow him to control the thoughts of all living beings. Opposing him is Orion, his son raised by Highfather and his enemies on New Genesis. Other characters caught in the deadly battle included the Forever People, an extension of the kid gang concept from the 1940s with a group of adolescents adventuring without an adult supervisor; Mister Miracle, a native of New Genesis raised on Apokolips who triumphed over a torturous childhood to become the world's greatest escape artist; and Lightray, the heroic warrior of New Genesis. Their adventures would take them to Earth where the war continued.
Comics historian Les Daniels observed in 1995 that "Kirby's mix of slang and myth, science fiction and the Bible, made for a heady brew, but the scope of his vision has endured". In 2007, comics writer Grant Morrison commented: "Kirby's dramas were staged across Jungian vistas of raw symbol and storm... The Fourth World saga crackles with the voltage of Jack Kirby's boundless imagination let loose onto paper".
The Fourth World characters reappeared in various titles. In 1976, the New Gods were featured in the last issue of 1st Issue Special. The New Gods series relaunched in July 1977, and with 1st Issue Special still a relatively recent publication, it picked up where the storyline of that issue left off. Although the title remained "The New Gods" in the indicia and retained its original numbering, launching with #12, the covers used the title "The Return of the New Gods". Gerry Conway wrote the series and Don Newton drew it. Mister Miracle teamed-up with Batman three times in The Brave and the Bold and the Mister Miracle series was revived in September 1977 by Steve Englehart and Marshall Rogers. Steve Gerber and Michael Golden produced three issues ending with #25 (Sept. 1978) with several storylines unresolved. Mister Miracle teamed with Superman in DC Comics Presents #12 (Aug. 1979) and the New Gods met the Justice League of America and the Justice Society of America in Justice League of America #183–185 (Oct–Dec 1980). "The Great Darkness Saga" storyline in Legion of Super-Heroes vol. 2 featured that team battling Darkseid a thousand years in the future.
Origin of the nameEdit
Mark Evanier, who worked as Kirby's assistant in the 1970s and later wrote an award-winning Kirby biography, has said that there are multiple, mutually-exclusive explanations for why Kirby chose the name "Fourth World", adding that "if you'd asked Jack eight times, you'd have gotten eight more"; ultimately, Evanier concluded that none of the suggested explanations are plausible, and that it is most likely "just a term that popped into [Kirby's] head and he liked the sound of it. Later on, he came up with several different retroactive explanations."
1984 reprint seriesEdit
In 1984, DC Comics reprinted Jack Kirby's original 11 issues of The New Gods in a six-issue limited series. The first five issues each reprinted two consecutive issues of the original series. The mini-series' final issue was originally intended to include a reprint of New Gods vol. 1 #11 and a new 24-page story which would conclude the series and end with both Darkseid and Orion dead. DC editors prevented Kirby from using his original intended ending. Kirby instead turned in a one-off story called "On the Road to Armagetto" which was rejected as well, due to the fact that it did not contain a definitive ending to the series. A 48-page new story called "Even Gods Must Die" was published instead, which in turn served as a prologue for the upcoming The Hunger Dogs graphic novel, which DC editors greenlit in order to conclude the series.
The Hunger Dogs was designed to give an ending to the story of the New Gods, while fulfilling editorial mandates that the New Gods be kept alive in order to ensure future use of the characters by later writers. It incorporated several pages from the unpublished "On the Road to Armagetto" story and brought Kirby's New Gods series to a close as the final battle between Orion and Darkseid is averted when the "hunger dogs", the tortured citizens of Apokolips, finally overthrow Darkseid and his regime, forcing Darkseid and his allies into exile.
Concurrent with DC's New Gods reprint series in 1984, Kirby worked on two Super Powers comic book limited series for DC Comics in which he continued the Fourth World characters and mythology.
A Forever People miniseries was published in 1988. Mister Miracle was featured in Justice League International by J. M. DeMatteis and Keith Giffen and a series of his own written by DeMatteis. The Fourth World characters were prominently featured in Cosmic Odyssey, which led to a third New Gods series (February 1989 – August 1991), written by Mark Evanier, which fleshed out details about the history of many New Gods, most notably introducing Darkseid's father Yuga Khan. A fourth New Gods series was launched in October 1995, and a third Mister Miracle series in April 1996. Both of these were replaced in March 1997 by the Jack Kirby's Fourth World series, written and drawn by John Byrne. Walt Simonson wrote and drew an Orion solo series from June 2000 to June 2002.
Writer Grant Morrison used some of the Fourth World mythology in various titles he worked on, including his run on JLA, with Orion and Big Barda becoming members, and more recently in the Seven Soldiers metaseries, in which the New Gods, especially Mister Miracle, played a major role. They are seen creating Aurakles, the first superhero.
The Death of the New Gods limited series (October 2007 – April 2008) was written and drawn by Jim Starlin. Final Crisis brought about the end of the Fourth World and the dawn of the Fifth as Darkseid was forevermore destroyed and the heroic New Gods (sans Scott Free and Orion) are reborn and made guardians of Earth-51, home of Kamandi and the Great Disaster.
With the reboot of the DC Universe following Flashpoint, the deaths of the New Gods and Darkseid have been removed from canon and the characters are still active. In particular, Darkseid and his uncle Steppenwolf and their attacks on the main DC Universe and Earth 2 play a major role in the rise of the superheroes: the Earth 2 versions of Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman die fighting Steppenwolf while the Earth 1 Justice League forms specifically to fight Darkseid and thwart his invasion of Earth.
A New 52 version of the Forever People debuted in the Infinity Man and the Forever People series. Serifan is now Serafina, Vykin's sister, and Beautiful Dreamer has been renamed Dreamer Beautiful.
In December 2007, DC Executive Editor Dan DiDio was discussing the aftermath of Death of the New Gods and pointed to the creation of Fifth World; he said: "It's the advent of the Fifth World... I think we've telegraphed so much that the New Gods are coming upon a rebirth, and the story that we’re telling with them now is a continuation of the story that was established when Kirby first conceived the concept. Talk about death—Kirby blew up worlds at the start of the series. The story started with, 'The Old Gods Died!' which made room for the New Gods—we’re picking up that thread and launching the DCU into the future".
That series led into Final Crisis. DiDio clarified things further, saying "the Fourth World is over. The battle between the forces of Darkseid and those of Highfather is over, and a new direction is in place for the characters in what will be deemed the Fifth World". The series' writer, Grant Morrison, added: "In Jack Kirby's Fourth World books... it's pretty clear that the New Gods have known about Earth for a long time and in JLA ten years ago, I suggested that part of their interest in us was rooted in the fact that Earth was destined to become the cradle of a new race of 'Fifth World' super-divinities—an eventuality Darkseid is eager to prevent from occurring". It was during that run on JLA that Morrison had Metron deliver a speech outlining the general principles:
How like little children you appear to me. How small is your comprehension and yet... there is a seed in you... The Old Gods died and gave birth to the New. These New Gods, even such as I, must also pass, in our turn. Our search was long and our war continues, but we found the planetary cradle of the Gods to Come. ... you are only forerunners.
The Kirby-produced "Fourth World" titles were reprinted by DC in trade paperback format in the early 2000s in black-and-white rather than in color, although the Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen preludes were reprinted in color:
- Jack Kirby's New Gods, collects The New Gods #1–11; 304 pages, December 1997, ISBN 978-1563893858
- Mister Miracle:
- Jack Kirby's The Forever People collects The Forever People #1–11, 288 pages, October 1999, ISBN 978-1563895104
- Jimmy Olsen: Adventures by Jack Kirby
DC reprinted the entire Fourth World saga in publishing order in a four book hardcover collection entitled Jack Kirby's Fourth World Omnibus in 2007–2008. The volumes collect the New Gods, Forever People, and Mister Miracle series along with Kirby's run on Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen. In addition to the remaining issues of Mister Miracle, Forever People, and New Gods, the fourth Omnibus included the Fourth World character entries written for Who's Who: The Definitive Directory of the DC Universe, the 48-page "Even Gods Must Die!" story published in the last issue of the 1984 Baxter reprint series, and The Hunger Dogs graphic novel. The series was reprinted in paperback starting in late 2011. In 2017, in honor of Kirby's 100th birthday, DC Comics released a new hardcover Fourth World omnibus which collects the story in its entirety. Additional material includes essays from authors Mark Evanier and Walter Simonson, as well as a special section of Kirby pencils, profiles, and pinups. The collection was released on December 12 the same year. The $150 omnibus however had a mistake, omitting the splash page from Jimmy Olsen #148, reprinting a page from an earlier episode instead.
New Edition 2021 On September 14, 2021 a New Edition was Reprinted correcting the original error on better quality paper stock at a reduced price and with 50 additional pages of unpublished material. ISBN 978-1779512611
- Jack Kirby's Fourth World Omnibus
- Volume 1 collects Forever People #1–3, Mister Miracle #1–3, The New Gods #1–3, Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen #133–139, 396 pages, May 2007, ISBN 978-1401213442 (hardcover); December 2011, ISBN 978-1401232412 (paperback)
- Volume 2 collects Forever People #4–6, Mister Miracle #4–6, The New Gods #4–6, Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen #141–145, 396 pages, August 2007, ISBN 978-1401213572 (hardcover); April 2012, ISBN 978-1401234409 (paperback)
- Volume 3 collects Forever People #7–10, Mister Miracle #7–9, The New Gods #7–10, Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen #146–148, 396 pages, November 2007, ISBN 978-1401214852 (hardcover); August 2012, ISBN 978-1401235352 (paperback)
- Volume 4 collects Forever People #11; Mister Miracle #10–18; The New Gods #11; "Even Gods Must Die" from The New Gods vol. 2, #6; DC Graphic Novel #4: "The Hunger Dogs", 424 pages, March 2008, ISBN 978-1401215835 (hardcover); December 2012, ISBN 978-1401237462 (paperback)
- Jack Kirbys Fourth World Omnibus HC, collects Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen #133–139 and #141–148, The Forever People #1–11, The New Gods #1–11, Mister Miracle #1–18, New Gods vol. 2 #1–6, DC Graphic Novel #4: "The Hunger Dogs", and Who's Who: The Definitive Directory of the DC Universe #2–3, #6, #8–18, #20, #22 and #25, 1,536 pages, December 2017, ISBN 978-1401274757 (hardcover)
- Evanier, Mark (2007). "Afterword". Jack Kirby's Fourth World Omnibus Volume One. New York, New York: DC Comics. pp. 388–396. ISBN 978-1401213442.
- Levitz, Paul (2010). "The Bronze Age 1970–1984". 75 Years of DC Comics The Art of Modern Mythmaking. Cologne, Germany: Taschen. p. 447. ISBN 9783836519816.
Kirby began introducing new elements to the DC Universe, building toward the introduction of a trio of new titles based on a complex mythology he called the Fourth World.
- Markstein, Don (2008). "The Forever People". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on July 5, 2014.
- Markstein, Don (2008). "Mister Miracle". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on July 7, 2014.
- Markstein, Don (2008). "New Gods". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on July 7, 2014.
- McAvennie, Michael; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1970s". DC Comics Year By Year: A Visual Chronicle. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9.
As the writer, artist, and editor of the Fourth World family of interlocking titles, each of which possessed its own distinct tone and theme, Jack Kirby cemented his legacy as a pioneer of grand-scale storytelling.
|first2=has generic name (help)
- Ives, Nat (January 31, 2005). "MediaTalk; Who Deserves The Credit (and Cash) For Dreaming Up Those Superheroes?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014.
- Ro, Ronin (July 2004). Tales to Astonish: Jack Kirby, Stan Lee, and the American Comic Book Revolution. London, United Kingdom: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 148. ISBN 1-58234-345-4.
- Hodgman, Jim (June 1, 2008). "Comics". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014.
- Hatfield, Charles (July 1995). "Kirby's Fourth World: An Appreciation". The Jack Kirby Collector. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (6). Archived from the original on April 9, 2014.
While innovative in structure, the lineup allowed Kirby to revisit familiar genres: Jimmy Olsen and especially Forever People revived the Simon & Kirby kid gang formula.
- Daniels, Les (1995). "The Fourth World: New Gods on Newsprint". DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. New York, New York: Bulfinch Press. p. 165. ISBN 0821220764.
- Morrison, Grant (2007). "Introduction". Jack Kirby's Fourth World Omnibus Volume One. New York, New York: DC Comics. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-1401213442.
- Abramowitz, Jack (April 2014). "1st Issue Special It Was No Showcase (But It Was Never Meant To Be)". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (71): 45–47.
- New Gods (revival) at the Grand Comics Database
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 173: "The New Gods series and its original numbering were revived after a five-year break, with a story written by Gerry Conway and drawn by Don Newton".
- Haney, Bob (w), Aparo, Jim (p), Aparo, Jim (i). "The Impossible Escape" The Brave and the Bold 112 (April–May 1974)
- Haney, Bob (w), Aparo, Jim (p), Aparo, Jim (i). "Death by the Ounce" The Brave and the Bold 128 (July 1976)
- Haney, Bob (w), Aparo, Jim (p), Aparo, Jim (i). "Mile High Tombstone" The Brave and the Bold 138 (November 1977)
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 175: "Writer Steve Englehart and artist Marshall Rogers, having garnered acclaim for Detective Comics, picked up Mister Miracle where the series had ended three years before".
- Englehart, Steve (n.d.). "Mister Miracle #19–22". SteveEnglehart.com. Archived from the original on April 8, 2013.
- Kingman, Jim (December 2008). "The Miracle Messiah: Steve Gerber's Short-Lived Take on Mister Miracle". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (31): 57–59.
- Mister Miracle at the Grand Comics Database
- Nolen-Weathington, Eric (2007). Modern Masters Volume 12: Michael Golden. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. pp. 13–16 pm. ISBN 978-1893905740.
- Englehart, Steve (w), Buckler, Rich (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "Winner Take Metropolis" DC Comics Presents 12 (August 1979)
- Conway, Gerry (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis on New Genesis or "Where Have All the New Gods Gone?"" Justice League of America 183 (October 1980)
- Conway, Gerry (w), Pérez, George (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). ""Crisis Between Two Earths" or Apokolips Now!" Justice League of America 184 (November 1980)
- Conway, Gerry (w), Pérez, George (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis on Apokolips or Darkseid Rising!" Justice League of America 185 (December 1980)
- Manning, Matthew K. "1980s" in Dolan p. 198: "When [Paul Levitz] wrote 'The Great Darkness Saga', a five-issue epic that pitted the Legion against one of the most notorious villains of DC's long history, he and artist Keith Giffen crafted the most famous Legion story of all time and became fast fan favorites".
- The Jack FAQ, page 2, by Mark Evanier, at NewsFromME.com; published no later than March 7, 2021 (earliest date of page 1 on archive.org); retrieved October 4, 2022
- New Gods vol. 2 at the Grand Comics Database
- Evanier, Mark (2008). "Afterword". Jack Kirby's Fourth World Omnibus Volume 4. New York, New York: DC Comics. pp. 373–380. ISBN 978-1401215835.
- Evanier, Mark (2008). Kirby: King of Comics. New York, New York: Abrams Books. p. 200. ISBN 978-0810994478.
- Evanier, Mark (February 23, 2001). "Miracle Man". News From ME. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014.
- Evanier, Mark (September 16, 2006). "Ever the Source". News From ME. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014.
- Fumetti, Joseph (October 2, 2004). "Cartoonisiada August 20th-October 2nd, 2004". AAI-NYC.org. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
- Forever People vol. 2 at the Grand Comics Database
- Mister Miracle vol. 2 at the Grand Comics Database
- Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 235: "Writer Jim Starlin and artist Mike Mignola teamed up for a sci-fi miniseries that spanned the [DC Universe]".
- New Gods vol. 3 at the Grand Comics Database
- New Gods vol. 4 at the Grand Comics Database
- Mister Miracle vol. 3 at the Grand Comics Database
- Jack Kirby's Fourth World at the Grand Comics Database
- Cowsill, Alan "2000s" in Dolan, p. 296: "Comic book legend Walt Simonson brought his unique vision to one of Jack Kirby's greatest heroes on Orion, the first ongoing series to feature the most prominent of the New Gods".
- Morrison, Grant (w), Ferry, Pasqual (p), Ferry, Pasqual (i). "New Godz" Seven Soldiers: Mr. Miracle 1 (November 2005)
- Morrison, Grant (w), Williams III, J. H. (p), Williams III, J. H. (i). "The Miser's Coat" Seven Soldiers 1 (December 2006)
- Cowsill "2000s" in Dolan, p. 331: "Writer and artist Jim Starlin helmed this eight-part series as a mysterious force brought destruction to the inhabitants of the Fourth World".
- Death of the New Gods at the Grand Comics Database
- Robinson, James (w), Scott, Nicola (p), Scott, Trevor (i). "The Price of Victory" Earth 2 1 (July 2012)
- Khouri, Andy (March 11, 2014). "O.M.A.C. Team Of Keith Giffen & Dan DiDio Reunite For Infinity Man And The Forever People". ComicsAlliance. Archived from the original on March 12, 2014.
- "Keith Giffen Talks Forever People, DiDio Reunion, Tries to Break the Internet". Newsarama. April 2, 2014. Archived from the original on June 29, 2014.
- Brady, Matt (December 10, 2008). "Dan DiDio: 20 Answers, 1 Question – Batman and More". Newsarama. Archived from the original on June 26, 2013.
- Brady, Matt (June 9, 2008). "Grant Morrison on Final Crisis #1". Newsarama. Archived from the original on June 4, 2013.
- Morrison, Grant (w), Frank, Gary; Land, Greg; Howard Porter (p), Dell, John; McLeod, Bob (i). "Rock of Ages Part Six: Stone of Destiny" JLA 15 (February 1998)
- Morrison, Grant (w), Porter, Howard (p), Geraci, Drew (i). "World War Three Part Five" JLA 40 (April 2000)
- "Jack Kirby's New Gods". DC Comics. February 7, 2001. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014.
- "Jack Kirby's Mr. Miracle". DC Comics. June 27, 2001. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012.
- "Jack Kirby's The Forever People". DC Comics. September 1, 1999. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012.
- "Jimmy Olsen: Adventures by Jack Kirby". DC Comics. July 23, 2003. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012.
- "Jimmy Olsen: Adventures by Jack Kirby Volume 2". DC Comics. October 20, 2004. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012.
- "Jack Kirby's Fourth World Omnibus Volume 4". DC Comics. March 26, 2008. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014.
- "Jack Kirby's Fourth World Omnibus Volume 1 tpb". DC Comics. December 7, 2011. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014.
- Jackson, Matthew (March 18, 2017). "Jack Kirby's legendary Fourth World Saga will finally get a glorious new omnibus edition". Syfy. Archived from the original on May 31, 2018.
- "Fourth World Problems – Omnibus Has A Major Printing Error". December 21, 2017.
- "Jack Kirby's Fourth World Omnibus Volume 1". DC Comics. June 13, 2007. Archived from the original on July 24, 2014.
- "Jack Kirby's Fourth World Omnibus Volume 2". DC Comics. September 5, 2007. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014.
- "Jack Kirby's Fourth World Omnibus Volume 2 tpb". DC Comics. April 4, 2012. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012.
- "Jack Kirby's Fourth World Omnibus Volume 3". DC Comics. November 21, 2007. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014.
- "Jack Kirby's Fourth World Omnibus Volume 3 tpb". DC Comics. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014.
- "Jack Kirby's Fourth World Omnibus Volume 4 tpb". DC Comics. December 4, 2012. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012.
- "1971 Academy of Comic Book Arts Awards". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013.
- "1998 Harvey Award Nominees and Winners". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on April 28, 2014.
- "1998 Will Eisner Comic Industry Award Nominees". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013.