Fisheries science is the academic discipline of managing and understanding fisheries. It is a multidisciplinary science, which draws on the disciplines of limnology, oceanography, freshwater biology, marine biology, meteorology, conservation, ecology, population dynamics, economics, statistics, decision analysis, management, and many others in an attempt to provide an integrated picture of fisheries. In some cases new disciplines have emerged, as in the case of bioeconomics and fisheries law. Because fisheries science is such an all-encompassing field, fisheries scientists often use methods from a broad array of academic disciplines. Over the most recent several decades, there have been declines in fish stocks (populations) in many regions along with increasing concern about the impact of intensive fishing on marine and freshwater biodiversity.
Fisheries science is typically taught in a university setting, and can be the focus of an undergraduate, master's or Ph.D. program. Some universities offer fully integrated programs in fisheries science. Graduates of university fisheries programs typically find employment as scientists, fisheries managers of both recreational and commercial fisheries, researchers, aquaculturists, educators, environmental consultants and planners, conservation officers, and many others.
Because fisheries take place in a diverse set of aquatic environments (i.e., high seas, coastal areas, large and small rivers, and lakes of all sizes), research requires different sampling equipment, tools, and techniques. For example, studying trout populations inhabiting mountain lakes requires a very different set of sampling tools than, say, studying salmon in the high seas. Ocean fisheries research vessels (FRVs) often require platforms which are capable of towing different types of fishing nets, collecting plankton or water samples from a range of depths, and carrying acoustic fish-finding equipment. Fisheries research vessels are often designed and built along the same lines as a large fishing vessel, but with space given over to laboratories and equipment storage, as opposed to storage of the catch. In addition to a diverse set of sampling gear, fisheries scientists often use scientific techniques from many different professional disciplines.
Members of this list meet one or more of the following criteria: 1) Author of widely cited peer-reviewed articles on fisheries, 2) Author of major reference work in fisheries, 3) Founder of major fisheries journal, museum or other related organisation 4) Person most notable for other reasons who has also worked in fisheries science.
|Baird, Spencer F.||American||1823||1887||Founding scientist of the United States Fish Commission|
|Baranov, Fedor I.||Russian||1886||1965||Baranov has been called the grandfather of fisheries population dynamics. The Baranov catch equation of 1918 is perhaps the most used equation in fisheries modelling.|
|Beverton, Ray||English||1922||1985||Fisheries biologist known for the Beverton–Holt model (with Sidney Holt), credited with being one of the founders of fisheries science|
|Christensen, Villy||Danish||-||Fisheries scientist and ecosystem modeller, known for his work on the development of Ecopath|
|Cobb, John N.||American||1868||1930||Founder of the first college of fisheries in the United States, the University of Washington College of Fisheries, in 1919|
|Cooke, Steven J.||Canadian||1974||Academic known for contributions to recreational fisheries science, inland fisheries and Conservation Physiology|
|Cushing, David||English||1920||2008||Fisheries biologist, who is credited with the development of the match/mismatch hypothesis|
|Everhart, W. Harry||American||1918||1994||Fisheries scientist, educator, administrator and author of several widely used fisheries texts|
|Froese, Rainer||German||1950||-||Known for his work on the development and coordination of FishBase|
|Graham, Michael||English||1889||1972||Known for his Great Law of Fishing, that “Fisheries that are unlimited become unprofitable.”|
|Green, Seth||American||1817||1888||Pioneer in fish farming who established the first fish hatchery in the United States|
|Gunter, Gordon||American||1909||1998||Pioneer in fisheries research in the northern Gulf of Mexico|
|Halver, John||American||1922||2012||His pioneering work on the nutritional needs of fish led to modern methods of fish farming and fish feed production. He has been called the father of fish nutrition.|
|Hempel, Gotthilf||German||1929||-||Marine biologist and oceanographer, and co-founder of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research|
|Herwig, Walther||German||1838||1912||Lawyer and promoter of high seas fishing and research|
|Chaudhuri, Hiralal||Indian||1921||2014||Father of induced breeding of the Carp and also the pioneer of Blue revolution. Fisheries biologist with strong contributions in fisheries management.|
|Hilborn, Ray||Canadian||1947||-||Fisheries biologist with strong contributions in fisheries management|
|Hjort, Johan||Norwegian||1869||1948||Known for research to determine why northern European fish populations fluctuate in abundance|
|Hofer, Bruno||German||1861||1916||Fishery scientist credited with being the founder of fish pathology|
|Holt, Sidney||English||1926||2019||Fisheries biologist known for the Beverton–Holt model (with Ray Beverton), credited with being one of the founders of fisheries science|
|Kils, Uwe||German||-||Marine biologist specializing in planktology. Inventor of the ecoSCOPE|
|Kyle, H. M.||Scottish||1872||1951||Ichthyologist specializing in fisheries science and one of the earliest identifiers of the concept of overfishing|
|Lackey, Robert T.||Canadian||1944||-||Fisheries scientist and political scientist known for his work involving the role of science in policy making|
|Larkin, Peter A.||Canadian||1924||1996||Fisheries scientist known for his critical remarks on the concept of MSY|
|Lee, Rosa M.||Welsh||1884||1976||One of the first UK women employed as a fisheries scientist. Known for "Rosa Lee's phenomenon," in which size-selective fishing mortality reduces the average size of older age classes|
|Lubchenco, Jane||American||1947||Known for both her academic research in fisheries and related fields as well as policies implemented during her time as head of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|
|Margolis, Leo||Canadian||1927||1997||Parasitologist and head of the Pacific Biological Station in Nanaimo, British Columbia|
|McKay, R. J.||Australian||Biologist and a specialist in translocated freshwater fishes|
|Myers, Ransom A.||Canadian||1952||2007||Fisheries biologist best known for his work assessing the status of ocean fish populations|
|Pauly, Daniel||French / Canadian||1946||Prominent fisheries scientist, known for his work studying human impacts on global fisheries|
|Pitcher, Tony J.||-||Known for work on the impacts of fishing, management appraisals and the shoaling behavior of fish|
|Rice, Michael A.||American||1955||-||Known for work on molluscan fisheries|
|Ricker, Bill||Canadian||1908||2001||Fisheries biologist, known for the Ricker model, credited with being one of the founders of fisheries science|
|Ricketts, Ed||American||1897||1948||A colourful marine biologist and philosopher who introduced ecology to fisheries science.|
|Roberts, Callum||-||Marine conservation biologist, known for his work on the role marine reserves play in protecting marine ecosystems|
|Rosenthal, Harald||German||1937||-||Hydrobiologist known for his work in fish farming and ecology|
|Safina, Carl||American||1955||-||Author of several writings on marine ecology and the ocean|
|Sars, Georg Ossian||Norwegian||1837||1927||Marine biologist credited with the discovery of a number of new species and known for his analysis of cod fisheries|
|Schaefer, Milner Baily||American||1912||1970||Notable for work on the population dynamics of fisheries|
|Schreck, Carl||American||1944||-||Fisheries scientist and endocrinologist known for his research on Pacific salmon|
|Schweder, Tore||Norwegian||1943||-||Statistician whose work includes the assessment of marine resources|
|Sette, Oscar Elton||American||1900||1972||Pioneered the integration of fisheries biology with oceanography and meteorology to create fisheries oceanography and modern fisheries science.|
|Shimada, Bell M.||American||1922||1958||Notable for study of tuna stocks in the equatorial Pacific Ocean.|
|Sumaila, Ussif Rashid||Nigerian||-||Notable for his analysis of the economic aspects of fisheries|
|Suttkus, Royal D.||American||1920||2009||Founder of the Royal D. Suttkus Fish Collection, housed at Tulane University|
|Utter, Fred M.||American||1931||-||Characterised by NOAA as the founding father of fishery genetics, he has been influential in marine conservation|
|von Bertalanffy, Ludwig||Austrian||1901||1972||In fisheries, best known for the von Bertalanffy function|
|Walters, Carl||American||1944||-||Biologist known for his work involving fisheries stock assessments, the adaptive management concept, and ecosystem modeling|
Some journals about fisheries are
- Journal of Fisheries
- Fishery Bulletin
- Fisheries Oceanography
- Journal of the Fisheries Research Board
- Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
- Transactions of the American Fisheries Society
- Fisheries Management and Ecology
- Fish and Fisheries
- Journal of Fish Biology
- Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science
- Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
- The Open Fish Science Journal
- African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries
- ICES Journal of Marine Science
- Reviews in Fisheries Science
- Aquaculture – Farming of aquatic organisms
- Fisheries management – Regulation of fishing
- International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
- Fisheries Law
- The Fisheries Law Centre
- Lackey, Robert (2005). "Fisheries: History, Science, and Management". In Lehr, Jay; Keeley, Jack (eds.). Water Encyclopedia. Wiley. doi:10.1002/047147844X.sw249. ISBN 047147844X.
- Evolving approaches to managing marine recreational fisheries. Leal, Donald., Maharaj, Vishwanie. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. 2009. ISBN 978-0-7391-2802-2. OCLC 232358037.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Inland fisheries management in North America. Hubert, Wayne A., Quist, Michael C. (Michael Carl), American Fisheries Society. Education Section., American Fisheries Society. Fisheries Management Section. (3rd ed.). Bethesda, Md.: American Fisheries Society. 2010. ISBN 978-1-934874-16-5. OCLC 650960010.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Schreck, Carl B.; Moyle, Peter B., eds. (2002). Methods for Fish Biology (Reprinted ed.). Bethesda, MD: American Fisheries Society. p. 704. ISBN 091323558X.
- Sass, Greg S.; Allen, Micheal S., eds. (2014). Foundations of Fisheries Science. Bethesda, MD: American Fisheries Society. p. 801. ISBN 978-1-934874-37-0.
- Hart, Paul J.B.; Reynolds, John D., eds. (2002). Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries: Fish Biology, Volume 1. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 432. ISBN 9780632054121.
- "Careers in Fisheries". American Fisheries Society. 2004. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- Zale, Alexander; Parrish, Donna; Sutton, Trent, eds. (2012). Fisheries Techniques (Third ed.). Bethesda, MD: American Fisheries Society. p. 1009. ISBN 978-1934874295.
- Lorenzen, Kai (2005-01-29). Beddington, J. R.; Kirkwood, G. P. (eds.). "Population dynamics and potential of fisheries stock enhancement: practical theory for assessment and policy analysis". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 360 (1453): 171–189. doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1570. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 1636107. PMID 15713596.
- Anderson, Lee G. (2004). The economics of fisheries management (Rev. and enl. ed.). Caldwell, N.J.: Blackburn Press. ISBN 1-930665-98-9. OCLC 57533583.
- Population genetics : principles and applications for fisheries scientists. Hallerman, Eric M. Bethesda, Md.: American Fisheries Society. 2003. ISBN 1-888569-27-1. OCLC 51979755.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "NOAA History - Giants of History - Spencer Fullerton Baird". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2020.
- Quinn, Terrance J. II (2003). "Ruminations on the development and future of population dynamics models in fisheries". Natural Resource Modeling. 16 (4): 341–392. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.473.3765. doi:10.1111/j.1939-7445.2003.tb00119.x.
- Cushing, D. H.; Edwards, R.W. (1996). "Raymond John Heaphy Beverton, C. B. E. 29 August 1922-23 July 1995". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 42: 24–38. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1996.0003. JSTOR 770195.
- Baer, Richard; Youngs, William; Oglesby, Ray (1994). "Watson Harry Everhart - June 5, 1918 - October 1, 1994" (PDF). Cornell University Faculty Memorial Statement.
- American Fisheries Society, National Fish Culture Hall of Fame, Spearfish, S.D. 2000
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-15. Retrieved 2014-07-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
- Sharma, Anil; Mohanty, Bimal (2015-01-25). "Hiralal Chaudhuri (1921-2014) - PERSONAL NEWS". Current Science. 108: 286–287.
- Aksnes, Dag W.; Browman, Howard I. (2014). "Johan Hjort's impact on fisheries science: a bibliometric analysis". ICES Journal of Marine Science. 71 (8): 2012–2016. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsu147.
- Paul J.B. Hart; John D. Reynolds, eds. (2008). Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries: Fisheries. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0470693131.
- Krisch, Joshua A. (2017). "The Science of Science Advocacy". The Scientist.
- Kraak, Sarah B. M.; Haase, Stefanie; Minto, Cóilín; Santos, Juan (2019). "The Rosa Lee phenomenon and its consequences for fisheries advice on changes in fishing mortality or gear selectivity". ICES Journal of Marine Science. 76 (7): 2179–2192. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsz107.
- Sullivan, Patricia (2007). "Biologist Ransom A. Myers, 54; Warned of Overfishing in Oceans". Washington Post.
- Ed Ricketts’ death, 50 years ago last week, preceded that of Cannery Row by only a few months.[permanent dead link] – Eric Enno Tamm (2005) Monterey County Weekly.
- History Makers: Honorable Mentions NOAA. Updated: 19 July 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- Katsanevakis, Stelios; Maravelias, Christos D. (2008). "Modelling fish growth: multi‐model inference as a better alternative to a priori using von Bertalanffy equation". Fish and Fisheries. 9 (2): 178–187. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2979.2008.00279.x.
- Hart, Paul J B and Reynolds, John D (2002) Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries, Chapter 1, The human dimensions of fisheries science. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-632-06482-X
- Megrey BA and Moksness E (eds) (2009) Computers in Fisheries Research second edition, Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-8635-9. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8636-6_1
- Pauly, D and Palomares, M L D (eds) (2002) Production Systems in Fishery Management UBC Fisheries Centre Research Reports 10(8).
- Payne A, Cotter AJR, Cotter J and Potter T (2008) Advances in fisheries science: 50 years on from Beverton and Holt John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-7083-3.