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Feylis (also known as Feyli Kurds[1][12][13][14][15] or Feyli Lurs,[16][17]) is a tribe of contested origin mainly living in the borderlands between Iraq and Iran, and in Baghdad.[13] They speak Feyli (also known as "Ilami" or "Southern Kurdish Feyli") which is classified as a sub-dialect of Southern Kurdish,[1][9] but is commonly mistaken as being identical with the separate Feyli dialect of Northern Luri.[1] Linguist Ismaïl Kamandâr Fattah argues that the Kurdish Feyli dialect and other Southern Kurdish sub-dialects are 'interrelated and largely mutually intelligible.'[18]

Feyli
فیلی
فەیلی
لور فؽلی
SOUTHERN KURDISH.JPG
Feylis and their dialect
Regions with significant populations
Provinces of Lorestan, Ilam, Kermanshah in Iran and provinces of Maysan, Diyala, Wasit in Iraq.[1][2] Smaller community in Kirkuk, Basrah and Kurdistan Region[3]
 Iraq
(incl.  Kurdistan Region)
1,500,000
(7,000 refugees still in Iran)[3][4]
Languages
Feyli or Ilami[5][6][7]
(sub-dialect of Southern Kurdish[6][7][1][8][9][10])
Religion
Shi'a Islam[11]
Related ethnic groups
Kurds, Lurs
Southern Kurdish
Default
  • Southern Kurdish
Language codes
ISO 639-3
sdh
Kurdish languages map.svg
Geographic distribution of Kurdish and other Iranian languages spoken by Kurds
  mixed areas

Feylis are recognized as ethnic Kurds in the Iraqi constitution.[19] In January 2019, Feyli Kurds received a reserved minority seat in Wasit Governorate,[20] which was won by Mazen Abdel Moneim Gomaa with 5,078 votes in 2018 Iraqi parliamentary election.[21] Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif also used the term "Feyli Kurds" in January 2019.[22]

Etymology

Austen Henry Layard (1887) described Feylis as the largest and the most powerful of Lur tribes inhabiting the mountains to the north of Dezful.[23] According to Michael Mehrdad R.S.C. Izady, the territory inhabited by the Pahli/Feyli people was known as "Pahla" (meaning "Parthia") since the 3rd century AD, outside proper Parthia (or Khorasan Province) in Iran.[24]

In 1953, British historian Stephen Hemsley Longrigg wrote about the political history of Iraq and wrote:[25]

These hardy natives of the southern Zagros, and subjects of their hereditary Wali, were familiar in Baghdad and Basra as porters of heavy loads, which occupation they monopolized. They were resident also as traders and craftsmen in the middle-Tigris and Gharraf regions, known there as Fayliya Kurds; and they dominated the border towns of Mandali and Badra and the villages near by. Of all this the last half-century has changed nothing...

and furthermore:[25]

North of Arabistan and almost equally independent of the Qajar dynasty lay Luristan, the province of the Lurs, who are racially and dialectically distinct from the Persians. It fell into two areas, the Greater and the Lesser. The Pusht-i Kuh, western zone of the latter and home of the Fayliya Kurds, formed its boundary with Basra and Baghdad wilayas. It had remained for three centuries under a single line of Walis. The obligations of the government were confined to a small tribute to the central Government,/ its powers unlimited within Pusht-i Kuh, its influence considerable in eastern `Iraq. Ghulam Ridha Khan, fourteenth of his line, was respected for his pomp and his religious observances, but hated for his morbid avarice.

Iran

Language distribution in Ilam Province (2014):[9]

  Kurdish (85.6%)
  Luri (10.7%)
  Arabic (1.8%)
  Persian (1.8%)

Feylis in Iran live predominately in Ilam Province and parts of Lorestan and have from the beginning of the 19th century moved westwards. Their connection to the trade routes between Iran and Iraq made them play an important role in Baghdad's commerce. Furthermore, the Exodus of Iran's Jews in 1948 to Israel which included Jewish merchants made Feylis fill the economic gap.[3]

Iraq and Kurdistan Region

Feylis predominately live in the Disputed territories of Iraq, in Khanaqin, Mandali, Badra near the Iranian border and consider themselves ethnic Kurds.[26] Feylis of Iraq have taken actively part in the Kurdish fight for independence and many Feylis have risen to position of great power, including Fuad Hussein of Kurdistan Democratic Party.[27][28][3] Feylis have been involved in the Kurdistan Democratic Party since its founding in 1946 and were also actively involved in the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan since its establishment in 1975.[29]

In the mid 1970s, Iraq expelled around 40,000 Feyli's who had lived for generations near Baghdad and Khanaqin, alleging that they were Iranian nationals.[30] In 2010, the Iraqi Ministry of Displacement and Migration reported that since 2003 about 100,000 Feylis have had their citizenship reinstated.[31]

On Monday 29 November 2010, an Iraqi court found Saddam Hussein's longtime foreign minister Tariq Aziz guilty of terrorizing Feylis during the Iran–Iraq War (see Kurdish rebellion of 1983 and Al-Anfal Campaign), sentencing him to 10 years in prison. Mohammed Abdul Saheb, a spokesman for Iraq's high criminal court, said: "Today a judge found Tariq Aziz guilty and sentenced him to 10 years in prison. The evidence was enough to convict him of displacing and killing Feyli Kurds. Aziz was a member of the revolutionary command council which cancelled the Iraqi nationality for many of the Feyli Kurds."[32] The spokesman also said Aziz was spared a death sentence for the crimes against humanity because he had a lesser involvement than some of his co-defendants in the atrocities against the Feyli Kurds.[33] Of the other 15 defendants in the Iraqi High Tribunal case, three Saddam Hussein loyalists were found guilty and sentenced to death. Two, including Aziz, were sentenced to 10 years in prison. The remaining 10 were acquitted, including Hussein's two half brothers, Watban Ibrahim al-Hassan and Sabbawi Ibrahim al-Hassan. The Feyli Kurd minority comes mainly from an area in northeastern Iraq that straddles the Iran–Iraq border. Saddam Hussein's regime killed, detained and deported tens of thousands of Feylis early in his 1980–1988 war with Iran, denouncing them as alien Persians and spies for the Iranians.[33]

In October 2011, the National Conference for Feyli Kurds held a conference in the Iraqi capital Baghdad which was attended by the Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. Al-Maliki said in a speech "the Feyli Kurds have been targets for harming, similar to other Iraqi communities". He also called "for the unity of Feyli Kurds under a common tent, uniting them and organizing their activities, together with other Iraqi communities". He ended his speech by saying "we shall support the rights of the Feyli Kurds, beginning with the restoration of their official documents and their presence in their homeland and ending with the paying back the funds that were confiscated from them (during the former regime)". The Iraqi Prime Minister also recognized "that over 22,000 Feyli Kurds had been deported from Iraq by the former regime, calling for the restoration of their rights".[34]

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Khanaqin: We may be Shiites, but it's a big "Yes" for Kurdistan independence". Rûdaw. 21 June 2017. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d "Iraq – Faili Kurds". Minority Rights. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  4. ^ Vivian Tan (28 May 2008). "Feili Kurds in Iran seek way out of identity impasse". UNCHR. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  5. ^ Erik Anonby. "Atlas of the Languages of Iran A working classification". Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  6. ^ a b Sharifi, Shahla; Karimipour, Amir (11 November 2012). "Event Schemas and Thematic Roles in Ilami Dialect of Kurdish". International Journal of Linguistics. 4 (4). doi:10.5296/ijl.v4i4.2336. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  7. ^ a b Sharifi, Shahla; Karimipour, Amir (23 February 2013). "A Typological Description of Word Order-Rules in Kurdish (Ilami Dialect)". International Journal of Linguistics. 5 (1). doi:10.5296/ijl.v5i1.2434. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  8. ^ "Kurdish, Southern". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 4 July 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Mohammad Aliakbari, Mojtaba Gheitasi, Erik Anonby (September 2014). "On Language Distribution in Ilam Province, Iran". Iranian Studies. 48 (6): 835–850. doi:10.1080/00210862.2014.913423. Retrieved 25 May 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Saiwan Kamber (2015). Kurdish proverbs and sayings : Feylî dialect, English translation. ISBN 978-91-7569-823-6.
  11. ^ Göran Larsson, David Thurfjell (2013). "Shia-muslimer i Sverige – en kortfattad översikt" (PDF). SST – Nämnden för Statligt Stöd till Trossamfund. Stockholm. 3: 8. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  12. ^ David McDowall (14 May 2004). A Modern History of the Kurds. p. 330. ISBN 978-1-85043-416-0.
  13. ^ a b "Iraq: Information on the Kurdish Feyli (Faily/Falli) families, including their main area of residence and their relationship with other Kurdish groups and the Iraqi regime". Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. 1 October 1996. Archived from the original on 11 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  14. ^ "The Faili Kurds of Iraq: Thirty Years Without Nationality". ReliefWeb. 2 April 2010. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  15. ^ Associated Press (28 August 2005). "Text of the Draft Iraqi Constitution". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  16. ^ Pierre Oberling (1960). The Turkic Peoples of Southern Iran. Research and studies in Uralic and Altaic languages Project.
  17. ^ "Feyli". Iranica Online. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  18. ^ Les dialectes kurdes méridionaux: étude linguistique et dialectologique. 37. Liège: Acta Iranica. 2000. ISBN 978-90-429-0918-2.
  19. ^ "Iraq's Constitution of 2005" (PDF). Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  20. ^ "Seat in Parliament reserved for Feyli Kurds in Iraq". Al Shahid Witness. 23 January 2019. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  21. ^ "IHEC Results – Wassit" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  22. ^ "PressTV-Dialog must replace war to strengthen region: Iran". Presstv. 14 January 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  23. ^ Layard, Austen Henry (2011) [1887]. Early Adventures in Persia, Susiana, and Babylonia: Including a Residence Among the Bakhtiyari and Other Wild Tribes Before the Discovery of Nineveh (reprint) (2nd ed.). Camberidge University Press. p. 307. ISBN 978-1-108-04343-4.
  24. ^ Izady, M. R. (1992). The Kurds: A Concise Handbook. London. ISBN 978-0-7377-6758-2.
  25. ^ a b Stephen Hemsley Longrigg (1953). Iraq 1900 to 1950 a Political, Social and Economic History. Oxford University Press. p. 10, 13-14.
  26. ^ Adel Soheil (March 2019). The Iraqi Ba'th Regime's Atrocities Against the Faylee Kurds: Nation-State. pp. 83–84. ISBN 978-91-7785-892-8.
  27. ^ "Largest party in Kurdistan Region announces Iraqi presidency candidate". Kurdistan24. 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  28. ^ "Long shunned by all, Faili Kurds may find a home in independent Kurdistan". Rûdaw. 6 September 2017. Archived from the original on 17 September 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  29. ^ PhD M. Jafar. "Feyli Kurds and their role". Faylee.org. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  30. ^ P. Oberling, The Turkic Peoples of Southern Iran, New York, 1960.
  31. ^ "The Faili Kurds of Iraq: Thirty Years Without Nationality". ReliefWeb. 2 April 2010. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  32. ^ Chulov, Martin (29 November 2010). "Tariq Aziz given additional 10-year jail term for persecution of Shia Kurds". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  33. ^ a b Iraq court gives Tariq Aziz new 10-year sentence Archived 4 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press via Yahoo! News
  34. ^ "Over 22,000 Iraq's Faili Kurds deported by former regime, Maliki says". Aswat al-Iraq. 1 October 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2019.