A fermentation starter (called simply starter within the corresponding context, sometimes called a mother) is a preparation to assist the beginning of the fermentation process in preparation of various foods and fermented drinks. A starter culture is a microbiological culture which actually performs fermentation. These starters usually consist of a cultivation medium, such as grains, seeds, or nutrient liquids that have been well colonized by the microorganisms used for the fermentation.
In descriptions of national cuisines, fermentation starters may be referred to by their national names:
- Qū (simplified: 曲; traditional: 麴, also romanized as chu) (China)
- Jiuqu (simplified Chinese: 酒曲; traditional Chinese: 酒麴; pinyin: jiǔ qū): the starter used for making Chinese alcoholic beverages
- Laomian (pinyin: laomian; literally: 'old dough' pinyin: mianfei; literally: 'dough fat'): Chinese sourdough starter commonly used in Northern Chinese cuisine, the sourness of the starter is commonly quenched with sodium carbonate prior to use.
- Nuruk (누룩) (Korea)
- Meju (메주) (Korea)
- Koji (麹) (Japan)
- Ragi tapai (Indonesia and Malaysia)
- Bakhar, ranu, marchaar (murcha), Virjan (India)
- Bubod, tapay, budbud (Philippines)
- Luk paeng (Thai: ลูกแป้ง) (Thailand)
- Levain (France)
- Bread zakvaska (закваска, sourdough) (Russia, Ukraine) or zakwas (Poland)
- Opara (опара), (Russia), a starter based on yeast
Typical microorganisms used in starters include various bacteria and fungi (yeasts and molds): Rhizopus, Aspergillus, Mucor, Amylomyces, Endomycopsis, Saccharomyces, Hansenula anomala, Lactobacillus, Acetobacter, etc. Various national cultures have various active ingredients in starters, and often involve mixed microflora.
Taxonomic characteristics of starter cultures
Lactococci are the major mesophilic microorganisms used in acid production in dairy fermentations. Although five species are recognised, only one, Lactococcus lactis
, is of significance in dairy fermentations. Lc.lactis are cocci that usually occur in chains, although single and paired cells are also found. they are homofermentative ;when grow in millk , more than 95% of their end product is lactic acid.
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