Ferungulata

  (Redirected from Fereuungulata)

Ferungulata or Fereuungulata is a clade of placental mammals that groups together various carnivorans and ungulates. It has existed in two guises, a traditional one based on morphological analysis and a revised one taking into account more recent molecular analyses.

Ferungulates
Temporal range: 82.0–0 Ma Late Cretaceous - present[1]
Ferungulata.png
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Clade: Scrotifera
Clade: Ferungulata
Simpson, 1945
Subgroups
Synonyms
  • Cetferungulata (Arnason, 1999)
  • Fereuungulata (Waddell, 1999)

The traditional Ferungulata was established by George Gaylord Simpson in 1945.[2] It grouped together the extant orders Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla with the Tubulidentata and the superorder Paenungulata, as well as a number of orders known only from fossils. Although Simpson placed whales (Cetacea) in a separate cohort, recent evidence linking them to Artiodactyla would mean that they belong here as well.

Simpson established the grouping on the basis of morphological criteria, but this traditional understanding of Ferungulata has been challenged by a more recent classification, relying upon genetic criteria.[3][4] These studies separated his ungulate orders into two distinct placental groups, within Afrotheria and Laurasiatheria, respectively. The 'true' ungulates, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla, along with the whales, are included in the revised group, along with the Carnivora, and with the addition of pangolins (Pholidota), but the Tubulidentata and paenungulates are excluded. To reflect this difference, the revised clade is usually referred to as Fereuungulata. The Fereuungulata is a sister group to the Chiroptera (bats) and together they make up Scrotifera.

Phylogenetic position of the Ferungulata in the context of the order-level cladogram of Boreoeutheria (only living groups).
 Boreoeutheria 

 Euarchontoglires
 (primates, colugos, treeshrews, rodents, rabbits)  Lepus timidus - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica -(white background).jpg

 Laurasiatheria 

 Eulipotyphla
 (hedgehogs, shrews, moles, solenodons)  Erinaceus europaeus - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg

 Scrotifera 

 Chiroptera
 (bats and flying foxes)  Flying fox at botanical gardens in Sydney (cropped and flipped).jpg

 Ferungulata 
 Ferae 

 Pholidota
 (pangolins)  Pangolin Hardwicke (white background).jpg

 Carnivora
 (cats, hyenas, dogs, bears, seals, etc.)  Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XI).jpg

 Euungulata 

 Perissodactyla
  (horses, tapirs, rhinos, etc.) Equus quagga (white background).jpg

 Cetartiodactyla
 (camels, pigs, ruminants, hippos, whales, etc.)  The deer of all lands (1898) Hangul white background.png

The cladogram has been reconstructed from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA and protein characters.
Phylogeny within clade Ferungulata[5][6][7][8]
 Scrotifera 

Chiroptera Flying fox at botanical gardens in Sydney (cropped and flipped).jpg

 Ferungulata 
 Pan-Euungulata 

Euungulata Equus quagga (white background).jpg

 ? 

Protungulatidae

 Ferae 

Pholidotamorpha Pangolin Hardwicke (white background).jpg

Pan-Carnivora Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XI).jpg

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Xuming Zhou, Shixia Xu, Junxiao Xu, Bingyao Chen, Kaiya Zhou, and Guang Yang (2012) Phylogenomic Analysis Resolves the Interordinal Relationships and Rapid Diversification of the Laurasiatherian Mammals
  2. ^ Simpson, George Gaylord (1945). "The principles of classification and a classification of mammals". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 85: 350. hdl:2246/1104.
  3. ^ Waddell; et al. (1999). "Using Novel Phylogenetic Methods to Evaluate Mammalian mtDNA, Including Amino Acid-Invariant Sites-LogDet plus Site Stripping, to Detect Internal Conflicts in the Data, with Special Reference to the Positions of Hedgehog, Armadillo, and Elephant" (PDF). Systematic Biology. 48 (1): 31–53. doi:10.1080/106351599260427. PMID 12078643. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  4. ^ Zhou, X.; Xu, S.; Xu, J.; Chen, B.; Zhou, K.; Yang, G. (2011). "Phylogenomic Analysis Resolves the Interordinal Relationships and Rapid Diversification of the Laurasiatherian Mammals" (PDF). Systematic Biology. 61 (1): 150–164. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syr089. ISSN 1063-5157. PMC 3243735. PMID 21900649.
  5. ^ O’Leary, M. A., Bloch JI, Flynn, J. J., Gaudin, T. J., Giallombardo, A., Giannini, N. P., Goldber, S. L, Kraatz, B. P., Luo, Z-X, Jin Meng, Xijun Ni, Novacek, M. J., Perini, F. A., Randall, Z. S., Rougier, G. W., Sargis, E. J., Silcox, M. T., Simmons, N. B., Spaulding, M. Velazco, P. M., Weksler, M., Wible, J. R. Cirranello, A. L. (2013.) "The Placental Mammal Ancestor and the Post–K-Pg Radiation of Placentals." Science 339:6120:662-667.
  6. ^ Burger, Benjamin J. (2015-10-15). The Systematic Position of the Saber-Toothed and Horned Giants of the Eocene: The Uintatheres (Order Dinocerata) (PDF). Society of Vertebrate Paleontology 75th Annual Meeting. Dallas. Retrieved 2020-02-20. Conference abstract (p. 99). Explanation and conclusions: Episode 17: Systematic position of the Uintatheres (Order Dinocerata) on YouTube.
  7. ^ Orliac, M. J.; o'Leary, M. A. (2016). "The inner ear of Protungulatum (Pan-Euungulata, Mammalia)". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 23 (4): 337–352. doi:10.1007/s10914-016-9327-z. S2CID 33676627.
  8. ^ Frank Zachos (2020.) "Mammalian Phylogenetics: A Short Overview of Recent Advances"