Laurasiatheria

Laurasiatheria ("laurasian beasts") is a superorder of placental mammals that groups together order Eulipotyphla and clade Scrotifera.[3][5][6] It is a sister group to Euarchontoglires with which it forms the magnorder Boreoeutheria. Laurasiatheria was discovered on the basis of the similar gene sequences shared by the mammals belonging to it; no anatomical features have yet been found that unite the group. The Laurasiatheria clade is based on DNA sequence analyses and retrotransposon presence/absence data. The superorder originated on the northern supercontinent of Laurasia, after it split from Gondwana when Pangaea broke up.[3] Its last common ancestor is supposed to have diversified ca. 76[1] to 90[2] million years ago.

Laurasiatheria
Temporal range: 76.0–0 Ma[1][2] Earliest possible: 90.0 Ma Late Cretaceous - present
Laurasiatheria.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Magnorder: Boreoeutheria
Superorder: Laurasiatheria
Waddell et al., 1999[3]
Subgroups
Synonyms
  • Laurasiaplacentalia (Arnason, 2008)[4]
  • Hoplopoda (Goldfuss, 1820)

EtymologyEdit

The name of this superorder comes from the theory that these mammals evolved on the supercontinent of Laurasia.[3]

Classification and phylogenyEdit

Uncertainty still exists regarding the phylogenetic tree for extant laurasiatherians, primarily due to disagreement about the placement of orders Chiroptera and Perissodactyla. Based on morphological grounds, bats (order Chiroptera) had long been classified in the superorder Archonta (e.g. along with primates, treeshrews and the gliding colugos) until genetic research instead showed their kinship with the other laurasiatheres.[7] The studies conflicted in terms of the exact placement of Chiroptera, however, with it being linked most closely to groups such as order Eulipotyphla in the clade Insectiphillia. Two 2013 studies retrieve that bats, carnivorans and euungulates form a clade Scrotifera, therefore involving that Eulipotyphla might be a basal group to all other Laurasiatheria taxa.[8][9]

Phylogeny within superorder Laurasiatheria[10][2][11][12][13]
 Placentalia 

Atlantogenata  

 Boreoeutheria 

Euarchontoglires  

 Laurasiatheria 
 Eulipotyphla 

Erinaceota  

Solenodonota  

 Scrotifera 

Chiroptera  

Ferungulata  

The cladogram has been reconstructed from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA and protein characters, as well as the fossil record.

Laurasiatheria is also posited to include several extinct orders and superorders. At least some of these are considered wastebasket taxa, historically lumping together several lineages based on superficial attributes and assumed relations to modern mammals. In some cases, these orders have turned out to either be paraphyletic assemblages, or to be composed of mammals now understood not to be laurasiatheres at all.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b dos Reis, Mario; Inoue, Jun; Hasegawa, Masami; Asher, Robert J.; Donoghue, Philip C. J.; Yang, Ziheng (2012-09-07). "Phylogenomic datasets provide both precision and accuracy in estimating the timescale of placental mammal phylogeny". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1742): 3491–3500. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.0683. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 3396900. PMID 22628470.
  2. ^ a b c Zhou, Xuming; Xu, Shixia; Xu, Junxiao; Chen, Bingyao; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang (2012-01-01). "Phylogenomic Analysis Resolves the Interordinal Relationships and Rapid Diversification of the Laurasiatherian Mammals". Systematic Biology. 61 (1): 150–64. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syr089. ISSN 1063-5157. PMC 3243735. PMID 21900649.
  3. ^ a b c d Waddell, Peter J.; Okada, Norihiro; Hasegawa, Masami (1999). "Towards Resolving the Interordinal Relationships of Placental Mammals". Systematic Biology. 48 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1093/sysbio/48.1.1. PMID 12078634.
  4. ^ Arnason U., Adegoke J. A., Gullberg A., Harley E. H., Janke A., Kullberg M. (2008.) "Mitogenomic relationships of placental mammals and molecular estimates of their divergences." Gene.; 421(1-2):37–51
  5. ^ Nikaido, M.; Rooney, A. P. & Okada, N. (1999). "Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interpersed elements: Hippopotamuses are the closest extant relatives of whales". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 96 (18): 10261–10266. Bibcode:1999PNAS...9610261N. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.18.10261. PMC 17876. PMID 10468596.
  6. ^ Groves, Colin; Grubb, Peter (1 November 2011). Ungulate Taxonomy. JHU Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-4214-0093-8. OCLC 708357723.
  7. ^ Pumo, Dorothy E.; Finamore, Peter S.; Franek, William R.; Phillips, Carleton J.; Tarzami, Sima; Balzarano, Darlene (1998). "Complete Mitochondrial Genome of a Neotropical Fruit Bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, and a New Hypothesis of the Relationships of Bats to Other Eutherian Mammals". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 47 (6): 709–717. Bibcode:1998JMolE..47..709P. doi:10.1007/PL00006430. PMID 9847413. S2CID 22900642.
  8. ^ Tsagkogeorga, G; Parker, J; Stupka, E.; Cotton, J. A.; Rossiter, S. J. (2013). "Phylogenomic analyses elucidate the evolutionary relationships of bats". Current Biology. 23 (22): 2262–2267. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.09.014. PMID 24184098.
  9. ^ Morgan, C. C.; Foster, P. G.; Webb, A. E.; Pisani, D.; McInerney, J. O.; O'Connell, M. J. (2013). "Heterogeneous models place the root of the placental mammal phylogeny". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 30 (9): 2145–2256. doi:10.1093/molbev/mst117. PMC 3748356. PMID 23813979.
  10. ^ Waddell, Peter J.; Kishino, Hirohisa; Ota, Rissa (2001). "A phylogenetic foundation for comparative mammalian genomics". Genome Informatics. 12: 141–154. PMID 11791233.
  11. ^ O’Leary, M. A., Bloch JI, Flynn, J. J., Gaudin, T. J., Giallombardo, A., Giannini, N. P., Goldber, S. L, Kraatz, B. P., Luo, Z-X, Jin Meng, Xijun Ni, Novacek, M. J., Perini, F. A., Randall, Z. S., Rougier, G. W., Sargis, E. J., Silcox, M. T., Simmons, N. B., Spaulding, M. Velazco, P. M., Weksler, M., Wible, J. R. Cirranello, A. L. (2013.) "The Placental Mammal Ancestor and the Post–K-Pg Radiation of Placentals." Science 339:6120:662-667.
  12. ^ Frank Zachos (2020.) "Mammalian Phylogenetics: A Short Overview of Recent Advances", In book: "Mammals of Europe - Past, Present, and Future" (pp.31-48)
  13. ^ Xue Lv, Jingyang Hu, Yiwen Hu, Yitian Li, Dongming Xu, Oliver A. Ryder, David M. Irwin, Li Yu (2021.) "Diverse phylogenomic datasets uncover a concordant scenario of laurasiatherian interordinal relationships", Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 157
  14. ^ Burger, Benjamin J., (2015.) "The systematic position of the saber-toothed and horned giants of the Eocene: the Uintatheres (order Dinocerata)", Utah State University Uintah Basin Campus, Vernal, Utah
  15. ^ Avilla, Leonardo S.; Mothé, Dimila (2021). "Out of Africa: A New Afrotheria Lineage Rises From Extinct South American Mammals". Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 9. doi:10.3389/fevo.2021.654302. ISSN 2296-701X.

Further readingEdit

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