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The Ferae (/ˈfɪər/ FEER-ee, Latin[ˈfɛrae̯]) are a clade of mammals, consisting of the orders Carnivora (over 260 species, around the globe) and Pholidota (eight species of pangolins in tropical Africa and Asia). Pangolins do not exhibit morphological traits typically associated with carnivorans (wolves, cats, seals, and so on), and were thought to be the closest relatives of Xenarthra (armadillos and sloths), but DNA research conducted in the 2000s found the close relationship to carnivorans. Several extinct orders, relatives of the Pholidota, such as Creodonts,[1] are members of Ferae as well. An alternate name, Ostentoria, has also been proposed for a grouping of the Carnivora and Pholidota.[2]

Ferans
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous - present
Pangolin borneo.jpg
Pangolin
Order Carnivora.jpg
Diversity of carnivorans
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Clade: Ferungulata
(unranked): Ferae
Subgroups

According to recent studies (reflected in the diagram below), the closest relatives of Ferae are Perissodactyla (horses, tapirs, and rhinos) and Cetartiodactyla (which combines Artiodactyla—camels, pigs, ruminants and hippos—with Cetacea—whales and dolphins).[3][4] An alternate phylogeny (less supported) holds that the closest relatives to the Ferae are the Perissodactyla and Chiroptera (bats), not Cetartiodactyla.[5] Ferae together with Perissodactyla has been called Zooamata. Ferae, Perissodactyla, and Chiroptera together has been called Pegasoferae.

Phylogenetic position of the Ferae in the context of the order-level cladogram of Boreoeutheria.
 Boreoeutheria 

Euarchontoglires (primates, colugos, treeshrews, rodents, rabbits) Bruno Liljefors - Hare studies 1885 white background.jpg

 Laurasiatheria 

Eulipotyphla (hedgehogs, shrews, moles, solenodons) Erinaceus europaeus - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg

 Scrotifera 

Chiroptera (bats and flying foxes) Flying fox at botanical gardens in Sydney (cropped and flipped).jpg

 Fereuungulata 
 Ferae 

Pholidota (pangolins) FMIB 46859 Pangolin a grosse queue white background.jpeg

Carnivora (cats, hyenas, dogs, bears, seals, ...) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XI).jpg

 Euungulata 

Perissodactyla (horses, tapirs, rhinos, ...) Equus quagga (white background).jpg

Cetartiodactyla (camels, pigs, ruminants, hippos, whales, ...) The deer of all lands (1898) Hangul white background.png

The cladogram has been reconstructed from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA and protein characters.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Halliday, Thomas J. D.; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali (2015). "Resolving the relationships of Paleocene placental mammals" (PDF). Biological Reviews. 92 (1): 521–550. doi:10.1111/brv.12242. ISSN 1464-7931. PMID 28075073.
  2. ^ Amrine-madsen, H.; Koepfli, K.P.; Wayne, R.K.; Springer, M.S. (2003). "A new phylogenetic marker, apolipoprotein B, provides compelling evidence for eutherian relationships". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 28 (2): 225–240. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00118-0. PMID 12878460.
  3. ^ Beck, Robin MD; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf RP; Cardillo, Marcel; Liu, Fu-Guo; Purvis, Andy (13 November 2006). "A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 6 (1): 93. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-6-93. PMC 1654192. PMID 17101039.
  4. ^ Zhou, X.; et al. (2011). "Phylogenomic analysis resolves the interordinal relationships and rapid diversification of the Laurasiatherian mammals". Systematic Biology. 61 (1): 150–64. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syr089. PMC 3243735. PMID 21900649. Retrieved 3 October 2011. (Advance Access; published online 7 September 2011)
  5. ^ Nishihara, H.; Hasegawa, M; Okada, N (2006). "Pegasoferae, an unexpected mammalian clade revealed by tracking ancient retroposon insertions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (26): 9929–34. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603797103. PMC 1479866. PMID 16785431.