Dead arm of grapevine(Redirected from Eutypa lata)
Dead-arm, sometimes grape canker, is a disease of grapes caused by a deep-seated wood rot of the arms or trunk of the grapevine. As the disease progresses over several years, one or more arms may die, hence the name "deadarm". Eventually the whole vine will die. In the 1970s, dead-arm was identified as really being two diseases, caused by two different fungi, Eutypa lata and Phomopsis viticola (syn. Cryptosporella viticola).
|Dead arm of grapevine|
|Common names||grape canker
Fruit rot disease
|Causal agents||Eutypa lata and Phomopsis viticola|
|Hosts||Vine, Prunus, apples, pears, walnuts, pistachios|
|Distribution||Australia, North America|
Hosts and SymptomsEdit
Dead-arm is a disease that causes symptoms in grapevines in many regions of the world. This disease is mainly caused by the fungal pathogen, Phomopsis viticola, and is known to affect many varieties of grape. Early in the growing season, the disease can cause leaves to turn yellow and curl, along with stunted growth. As the name of this disease suggests, it also causes one or more arms of the grapevine to die and often the entire vine will die. Small, brown spots on the shoots and leaf veins are a very common first symptom of this disease.
Dead-arm of grapevine is caused by an ascomycete fungal pathogen. This pathogen produces sexual spores (ascospores) in the teleomorph stage and asexual spores (conidia) during the anamorph stage. When the pathogen is in the teleomorph stage it is referred to as Cryptosporella viticola and Phompsis viticola is the anamorph stage. The anamorph stage is known to occur in nature and produces the main inoculum associated with this plant disease. During favorable conditions, conidia are released from infected lesions of a grapevine leaf and dispersed to another plant
The severity of dead-arm in grapevine varies greatly season to season and from year to year. Since this disease is caused by a fungal pathogen, moisture increases the intensity of disease outbreaks. As the amount of rainfall changes between the seasons, so does the amount of pathogen present in the field. Temperature has also been shown to influence the
Use in winesEdit
Although the dead-arm disease is usually looked upon as a malignant disease that often cripples one or more vines, some wine estates have discovered that the arms that are still alive when dead-arm has struck yield a very flavorful wine. One such vineyard belonging to Australian wine producer d'Arenberg have marketed this "Dead Arm" Shiraz, which has received high wine ratings among various wine critics.
Eutypa dieback is caused by Eutypa lata (synonym: Eutypa armeniacae) which infects fresh pruning wounds when there is adequate moisture on the vine, such as just after a rain. The fungus also attacks many other hosts such as cherry trees, most other Prunus species, as well as apples, pears and walnuts.
Phomopsis leaf, also called Cane spot or Fruit rot disease, is caused by Phomopsis viticola.
- Lecomte P, Péros JP, Blancard D, Bastien N, Délye C (October 2000). "PCR assays that identify the grapevine dieback fungus Eutypa lata". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 (10): 4475–80. PMC . PMID 11010901. doi:10.1128/AEM.66.10.4475-4480.2000.
- "An Online Guide to Plant Disease Control: Grape: Eutypa Dieback" Oregon State University Extension;
- Ramsdell DC (October 1994). "Common Diseases of the Grapevine in Michigan". MSUE Fruit IPM Extension Bulletin. E-1732. Archived from the original on 2006-12-01.
- "Eutypa Dieback of Grape" Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet HYG-3203-95;
- Munkvold, G. P. (2001) "Eutypa dieback of grapevine and apricot" Plant Health Progress Online doi:10.1094/PHP-2001-0219-01-DG;
- EPPO Standards: Good plant protection practice: Grapevine PP 2/23(1), 2002, Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 32: pp. 367-392;
- Winter, Mick, (July 2000). Wine Business Monthly "Eutypa Dieback: The Next Grapevine Threat is Already Here"