The European green toad (Bufotes viridis) is a species of true toad found in steppes, mountainous areas, semi-deserts, urban areas and other habitats in mainland Europe, ranging from far eastern France and Denmark to the Balkans, Western Russia and the Caucasus.[2] As historically defined, the species ranged east through the Middle East and Central Asia to western China, Mongolia and northwestern India, and south through Italy and the Mediterranean islands to North Africa.

European green toad
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Bufotes
B. viridis
Binomial name
Bufotes viridis
(Laurenti, 1768)
European green toad range
  • Bufo viridis
    Laurenti, 1768
  • Pseudepidalea viridis
    Darrel R. Frost et al., 2006
European green toad sound

Following genetic and morphological reviews, 14 populations (all largely or entirely Asian, except for the African and Balearic green toads) are now regarded as separate species. These species and the European green toad are placed in their own genus Bufotes, but they were included in Bufo.[3][4]

Description edit

The spots on the back vary from green to dark brown and sometimes red spots appear, too. The underside is white or very lightly coloured. The European green toad will change colour in response to heat and light changes. Females are larger than males and can lay 9,000 to 15,000 eggs at a time.

Bufotes viridis tadpoles

It can reach a maximum size (head and body length) of 10 centimetres (3.9 in), but growth to this size is rare.[5]

Diet edit

Bufotes viridis eats a variety of insects and invertebrates, mainly crickets, meal worms, small butterflies, earthworms, moths, beetles, ants, spiders[6] and caterpillars. There has also been a reported attack on a bat.[7]

References edit

  1. ^ "Bufotes viridis ". Amphibian Species of the World 6.0, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History.
  2. ^
  3. ^ Dufresnes, C.; et al. (2019). "Fifteen shades of green: The evolution of Bufotes toads revisited". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 141: 106615. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2019.106615. PMID 31520778. S2CID 202573454.
  4. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2020). "Search for Taxon: Bufotes". Amphibian Species of the World, an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History, New York. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  5. ^ Arnold EN, Burton JA (1978). A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Britain and Europe. London: Collins. 272 pp. ISBN 0 00 219318 3. (Bufo viridis, p. 74 + Plate 8 + Map 33).
  6. ^ "AmphibiaWeb - Bufotes viridis".
  7. ^ Mikula P (2015). "Fish and amphibians as bat predators". European Journal of Ecology. 1 (1): 71–80. doi:10.1515/eje-2015-0010.

Further reading edit

  • Laurenti JN (1768). Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota reptilium austriacorum. Vienna: "Joan. Thom. Nob. de Trattnern". 214 pp. + Plates I–V. (Bufo viridis, new species, p. 27 + Plate I, figure 1). (in Latin).

External links edit