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Ernest Frederic Graham Thesiger, CBE (15 January 1879 – 14 January 1961) was an English stage and film actor. He is noted for his performance as Doctor Septimus Pretorius in James Whale's film, Bride of Frankenstein (1935).
A charcoal drawing of Thesiger
by John Singer Sargent, c. 1911
Ernest Frederic Graham Thesiger
15 January 1879
|Died||14 January 1961 (aged 81)|
Kensington, London, England
|Spouse(s)||Janette Mary Fernie Ranken (m. 1917)|
The grandson of the 1st Lord Chelmsford, Thesiger was born in London, England. He was the first cousin once removed of the explorer and author Wilfred Thesiger (1910–2003), and the nephew of the 2nd Lord Chelmsford, who, exactly a week after Ernest's birth, famously led his troops in battle against – and suffered a defeat at the hands of – a Zulu army at the Battle of Isandlwana.
Thesiger attended Marlborough College and the Slade School of Art with aspirations of becoming a painter, but quickly switched to drama, making his professional debut in a production of Colonel Smith in 1909. He also processed with the Men's League for Womens Suffrage at the mass rally in 1909.
After the outbreak of World War I, on 31 August 1914, he volunteered with the British Army's Territorial Force, enlisting into the 2nd Battalion of the 9th London Regiment (Queen Victoria's Rifles), as Rifleman No.2546 at its Regimental Headquarters in London's West End. After training in England for three months, he was sent to the Western Front in late 1914 with the Q.V.R.'s 1st Battalion.
On 1 January 1915, he was wounded in the trenches, and medically evacuated back to England. His interest in needlework had begun with buying and repairing pieces of historical embroidery with his brother in law William Ranken whilst in France. After the incident in a barn explosion, his hands had been damaged and on return home, despite the Ministry of Pensions declaring it "too effeminate an occupation for men", Thesiger developed small sewing kits for soldiers similarly injured to provide activity and pain relief. This became The Disabled Soldiers' Embroidery Industry, 42 Edbury Street, London. As Honorary Secretary Cross-Stitch, Thesiger was convinced that needlework could improve injured men's morale and earn some money, as he also obtained commissions, including an altar frontal for private use in Buckingham Palace.
In 1917, he married Janette Mary Fernie Ranken (1877–1970), sister of his close friend and fellow Slade graduate William Bruce Ellis Ranken. In her biography of Thesiger's friend, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Hilary Spurling suggests that Thesiger and Janette wed largely out of their mutual adoration of William, who shaved his head when he learned of the engagement. Another source states more explicitly that Thesiger made no secret of his homosexuality.
Thesiger moved in several artistic, literary and theatrical circles. And is reported to spend times with Queen Mary both doing needlework, commenting on the sexuality of proposed honours nominees . At various times, he frequented the studio of John Singer Sargent, befriended Mrs. Patrick Campbell, visited and corresponded with Percy Grainger and worked closely with George Bernard Shaw, who wrote the role of the Dauphin in Saint Joan for him. Somerset Maugham, on the other hand, responded to Thesiger's inquiry as to why he wrote no parts for him with the quip, "But I am always writing parts for you, Ernest. The trouble is that somebody called Gladys Cooper will insist on playing them." Thesiger was part of the cast of Maugham's highly successful 1921 play The Circle, produced at the Haymarket Theatre (also with Fay Compton and Leon Quartermaine).
Early stage careerEdit
Thesiger's first came to public notice in the farce A Little Bit of Fluff by Walter W. Ellis at the Criterion Theatre in 1915-18. He played the comic hero Bertrand Tully over 1,200 times, and received very favourable reviews. The London Standard wrote, "The character of Bertram Tully...is one of the happiest seen on the stage for a decade past...Mr. Ernest Thesiger achieved a real triumph." He reprised the role in the 1919 film version, and in a 1923 revival at the Ambassadors Theatre.
In 1925, Thesiger appeared in drag in Noël Coward's On with the Dance, and later played the Dauphin in Shaw's Saint Joan. He wrote an autobiography Practically True, published in 1927, which covers his stage career. An unpublished memoir written near the end of his life is housed in the Ernest Thesiger Collection at the University of Bristol Theatre Collection.
Thesiger made his film debut in 1916 in The Real Thing at Last, a spoof presenting Macbeth as it might be done by an American company, in which he did a drag turn as one of the Witches. Thesiger also played the First Witch in a 1941 production of Macbeth directed by John Gielgud. He performed more small roles in films during the silent era, but worked mainly on the stage. He had a larger role in an early film for director Alfred Hitchcock, the silent Number 13 (1922), but this was never completed due to lack of funds.
Work with James WhaleEdit
When he appeared in a Christmas production of The Merry Wives of Windsor in 1919, Thesiger met and befriended James Whale. After Whale moved to Hollywood and had found success with the films Journey's End (1930) and Frankenstein (1931), the director was commissioned to direct the screen adaptation of J. B. Priestley's Benighted as The Old Dark House (1932), starring Charles Laughton in his first American film, together with Boris Karloff and Raymond Massey. Whale immediately cast Thesiger in the film as Horace Femm, launching his Hollywood career. The following year Thesiger appeared (as a Scottish butler) with Karloff in a British film The Ghoul.
When Whale agreed to direct Bride of Frankenstein in 1935, he insisted on casting Thesiger as Dr. Septimus Pretorius, instead of the studio's choice of Claude Rains. Partly inspired by Mary Shelley's friend John Polidori and largely based on the Renaissance physician and botanist Paracelsus, it became Thesiger's most famous role.
Arriving in the United States for the filming of Bride of Frankenstein, Thesiger immediately set up a display in his hotel suite of all his needlework, each with a price tag, and during the making of the film he would work on needlework, one of his hobbies.
Originally cast to play the luddite sculptor Theotocopolous in H.G. Wells's Things to Come (1936), Thesiger's performance was deemed unsuitable by the author, and so was replaced by Cedric Hardwicke, although he was retained on the parallel production of Wells's The Man Who Could Work Miracles. Around this same time Thesiger published a book, Adventures in Embroidery, about needlework, which was his expert hobby.
The remainder of Thesiger's career was centered on the theatrical stage, though he did appear in supporting roles in films produced in Britain, prominent among which is The Man in the White Suit (1951), starring Alec Guinness. He plays "Sir John," the most powerful, the richest, and the oldest of the industrialists (jointly with the trade unions) trying to suppress Guinness's invention of a fabric that never wears out and never gets dirty.
Thesiger made several appearances on Broadway, notably as Jacques to Katharine Hepburn's Rosalind in the longest-running production of As You Like It ever produced on Broadway. Later films included The Horse's Mouth (1958) with Alec Guinness, Sons and Lovers (1960), and The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone, with Vivien Leigh and Warren Beatty (1961). That same year he made his final stage appearance—a mere week before his death—in The Last Joke, with John Gielgud and Ralph Richardson.
In 1960, Thesiger was awarded the Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE). He was Vice Patron of the Embroiderers Guild. His last film appearance was a small role in The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone (1962). Shortly after completing it, Thesiger died in his sleep from natural causes on the eve of his 82nd birthday. His body was buried in Brompton Cemetery in London.
In the fictionalised James Whale biopic Gods and Monsters (1998), Thesiger was portrayed by Arthur Dignam. And the real Thesiger is seen in the film when Brendan Fraser, as Whale's gardener, sits at a bar watching a televised showing of the original 1935 Bride of Frankenstein.
- The Real Thing at Last (1916) - Witch
- Nelson (1918) - William Pitt, the Younger
- The Life Story of David Lloyd George (1918) - Joseph Chamberlain
- A Little Bit of Fluff (1919) - Bertram Tully
- The Bachelor's Club (1921) - Israfel Mondego
- The Adventures of Mr. Pickwick (1921) - Mr. Jingle
- Number 13 (1922, Unfinished) - Mr. Peabody
- Week-End Wives (1928) - Bertram
- The Vagabond Queen (1929) - Lidoff
- The Old Dark House (1932) - Horace Femm
- The Ghoul (1933) - Laing
- The Only Girl (1933) - The Chamberlain
- My Heart is Calling (1935) - Fevrier
- Bride of Frankenstein (1935) - Dr. Pretorius
- The Night of the Party (1935) - Chiddiatt
- The Man Who Could Work Miracles (1936) - Maydig
- They Drive by Night (1938) - Walter Hoover
- The Ware Case (1938) - Carter
- Lightning Conductor (1938) - Professor
- My Learned Friend (1943) - Ferris
- The Lamp Still Burns (1943) - Chairman
- Don't Take It to Heart (1944) - Justices' Clerk
- Henry V (1944) - Duke of Berri - French Ambassador.
- A Place of One's Own (1945) - Dr. Marsham
- Caesar and Cleopatra (1945) - Theodotus
- Beware of Pity (1946) - Baron Emil de Kekesfalva
- The Man Within (1947) - Farne
- Jassy (1947) - Sir Edward Follesmark
- The Ghosts of Berkeley Square (1947) - Dr. Cruickshank of Psychical Research Society
- The Winslow Boy (1948) - Mr. Ridgeley Pierce
- Quartet (1948) - Henry Dashwood (segment "The Colonel's Lady")
- Brass Monkey (1948) - Ryder-Harris
- The Bad Lord Byron (1949) - Count Guiccioli
- Last Holiday (1950) - Sir Trevor Lampington
- Laughter in Paradise (1951) - Endicott
- The Man in the White Suit (1951) - Sir John Kierlaw
- Scrooge (1951) - The Undertaker
- The Magic Box (1951) - Earl
- The Woman's Angle (1952) - Judge
- The Robe (1953) - Emperor Tiberius
- Meet Mr. Lucifer (1953) - Mr. Macdonald
- The Million Pound Note (1954) - Mr. Garrett, Bank Director (uncredited)
- Father Brown (1954) - Vicomte de Verdigris
- Make Me an Offer (1954) - Sir John
- Value for Money (1955) - Lord Dewsbury
- Quentin Durward (1955) - Lord Crawford
- An Alligator Named Daisy (1955) - Notcher
- Who Done It? (1956) - Sir Walter Finch
- Three Men in a Boat (1956) - 3rd Old Gentleman
- Doctor at Large (1957) - First Examiner
- The Truth About Women (1958) - Judge
- The Horse's Mouth (1958) - Hickson
- The Battle of the Sexes (1959) - Old Macpherson
- Armchair Theatre; Lord Arthur Savile's Crime (TV, 1960, TV Series)
- The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone (1961) - Stefano (final film role)
- "Ernest Thesiger". BFI.
- "Ernst Thesiger - Biography, Movie Highlights and Photos - AllMovie". AllMovie.
- Hunter, Clare (2019). Threads of life : a history of the world through the eye of a needle. London: Sceptre (Hodder & Staunton). pp. 46–48. ISBN 9781473687912. OCLC 1079199690.
- Lives of the First World War, Imperial War Museum database, London, entry for Ernest Thesiger. https://livesofthefirstworldwar.org/lifestory/4396731#evidence
- Thesiger's World War I Medal Index Card, The National Archive, Kew, Surrey, England, Order Code: WO 372/19/199216. http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/D5521869.
- Curtis, James (1998). James Whale: A New World of Gods and Monsters. Boston: Faber and Faber. p. 240. ISBN 0-571-19285-8.
- Stott, Raymond Toole Stott (1950). Maughamiana. London: Heinemann. p. 38.
- Slide, Anthony (13 March 1998). "Eccentrics of Comedy". Scarecrow Press – via Google Books.
- Tyler, H “A Little Bit of Fluff”, Ernestthesiger.org, accessed 18 March 2018
- "Bristol University - Theatre Collection - Ernest Thesiger Archive". bristol.ac.uk.
- Mayer, Geoff (2003). "Guide to British Cinema". Greenwood Publishing Group USA. ISBN 031330307X – via Google Books.
- "Ernest Thesiger - Expert Embroiderer 1944", British Pathé newsreel
- "BFI Screenonline: Thesiger, Ernest (1879-1961) Biography". screenonline.org.uk.
- "Ernest Thesiger, Actor, 82, Is Dead. Stage and Film Performer in Britain Since 1909. Had Paintings Displayed". The New York Times. 15 January 1961. Retrieved 6 May 2008.
Ernest Thesiger, veteran stage and film actor, died at his home here today. He would have been 82 years old.
- Mark Duguid "Lord Arthur Savile's Crime (1960)", BFI screenonline