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Epsilon Virginis (ε Virginis, abbreviated Epsilon Vir, ε Vir), formally named Vindemiatrix /vɪndmiˈtrɪks/,[11][12] is a star in the zodiac constellation of Virgo. The apparent visual magnitude of this star is +2.8,[2] making it the third-brightest member of Virgo. Based upon parallax measurements made during the Hipparcos mission, Vindemiatrix lies at a distance of about 109.6 light-years (33.6 parsecs) from the Sun, give or take a half light-year.[1]

ε Virginis
Virgo constellation map.svg
Red circle.svg
Location of ε Virginis (circled)
Observation data
Epoch J2000.0      Equinox J2000.0
Constellation Virgo
Right ascension  13h 02m 10.59785s[1]
Declination +10° 57′ 32.9415″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) +2.826[2]
Spectral type G8 III[3]
U−B color index +0.718[2]
B−V color index +0.940[2]
Radial velocity (Rv)-14.6[4] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: -273.80[1] mas/yr
Dec.: +19.96[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π)29.76 ± 0.14[1] mas
Distance109.6 ± 0.5 ly
(33.6 ± 0.2 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV)0.37 ± 0.06[5]
Mass2.64 ± 0.11[5] M
Radius10.6 ± 0.3[6] R
Luminosity77[7] L
Surface gravity (log g)2.71 ± 0.04[5] cgs
Temperature5,086[5] K
Metallicity [Fe/H]+0.09[5] dex
Rotation173 days[8]
Rotational velocity (v sin i)2.3[9] km/s
Age560 ± 90[5] Myr
Other designations
Vindemiatrix, Vindemiator, Almuredin, Provindemiator, Protrigetrix, Protrygetor, Alaraph, 47 Virginis, BD+11°2529, FK5 488, HD 113226, HIP 63608, HR 4932, SAO 100384[10]
Database references

Stellar propertiesEdit

Vindemiatrix is a giant star with a stellar classification of G8 III.[3] With 2.6[5] times the mass of the Sun, it has reached a stage in its evolution where the hydrogen fuel in its core is exhausted. As a result, it has expanded to over ten[6] times the Sun's girth and is now radiating around 77[7] times as much luminosity as the Sun. This energy is being emitted from its outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 5,086 K,[5] which gives it the yellow-hued glow of a G-type star. Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified.[13]

This star is a likely member of the thin disk population and the orbit departs by no more than 60 pc (200 ly) from the galactic plane.[14]


ε Virginis (Latinised to Epsilon Virginis) is the star's Bayer designation.

It bore the traditional names Vindemiatrix and Vindemiator, which come from Greek through the Latin vindēmiātrix, vindēmiātor meaning 'the grape-harvestress'. Additional medieval names are Almuredin /ælˈmjʊərədɪn/,[15] Alaraph, Provindemiator, Protrigetrix and Protrygetor.[16] In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN)[17] to catalog and standardize proper names for stars. The WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016[18] included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN; which included Vindemiatrix for this star.

This star, along with Beta Virginis (Zavijava), Gamma Virginis (Porrima), Eta Virginis (Zaniah) and Delta Virginis (Auva), were Al ʽAwwāʼ, which is Arabic for 'the Barker'.[19]

In Chinese, 太微左垣 (Tài Wēi Zuǒ Yuán), meaning Left Wall of Supreme Palace Enclosure, refers to an asterism consisting of Epsilon Virginis, Eta Virginis, Gamma Virginis, Delta Virginis and Alpha Comae Berenices.[20] Consequently, the Chinese name for Epsilon Virginis itself is 太微左垣四 (Tài Wēi Zuǒ Yuán sì, English: the Fourth Star of Left Wall of Supreme Palace Enclosure.),[21] representing 東次將 (Dōngcìjiāng), meaning The Second Eastern General.[22] 東次將 (Dōngcìjiāng), westernized into Tsze Tseang by R.H. Allen and the meaning is "the Second General".[16]


  1. ^ a b c d e f van Leeuwen, F. (November 2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–664. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357.
  2. ^ a b c d Gutierrez-Moreno, Adelina; et al. (1966), A System of photometric standards, 1, Publicaciones Universidad de Chile, Department de Astronomy, pp. 1–17, Bibcode:1966PDAUC...1....1G
  3. ^ a b Morgan, W. W.; Keenan, P. C. (1973), "Spectral Classification", Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11: 29, Bibcode:1973ARA&A..11...29M, doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.11.090173.000333
  4. ^ Wielen, R.; et al. (1999), Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutions, 35, Veröffentlichungen des Astronomisches Rechen-Institut Heidelberg, Bibcode:1999VeARI..35....1W
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h da Silva, L.; et al. (November 2006), "Basic physical parameters of a selected sample of evolved stars", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 458 (2): 609–623, arXiv:astro-ph/0608160, Bibcode:2006A&A...458..609D, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20065105
  6. ^ a b Nordgren, Tyler E.; et al. (December 1999), "Stellar Angular Diameters of Late-Type Giants and Supergiants Measured with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer", The Astronomical Journal, 118 (6): 3032–3038, Bibcode:1999AJ....118.3032N, doi:10.1086/301114
  7. ^ a b Mallik, Sushma V. (December 1999), "Lithium abundance and mass", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 352: 495–507, Bibcode:1999A&A...352..495M
  8. ^ Setiawan, J.; et al. (July 2004), "Precise radial velocity measurements of G and K giants. Multiple systems and variability trend along the Red Giant Branch", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 421: 241–254, Bibcode:2004A&A...421..241S, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041042-1
  9. ^ Pizzolato, N.; Maggio, A.; Sciortino, S. (September 2000), "Evolution of X-ray activity of 1-3 Msun late-type stars in early post-main-sequence phases", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 361: 614–628, Bibcode:2000A&A...361..614P
  10. ^ "eps Vir". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
  11. ^ "Vindemiatrix". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  12. ^ "IAU Catalog of Star Names". Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  13. ^ Garrison, R. F. (December 1993), "Anchor Points for the MK System of Spectral Classification", Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 25: 1319, Bibcode:1993AAS...183.1710G, retrieved 2012-02-04
  14. ^ Soubiran, C.; et al. (2008), "Vertical distribution of Galactic disk stars. IV. AMR and AVR from clump giants", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 480 (1): 91–101, arXiv:0712.1370, Bibcode:2008A&A...480...91S, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078788
  15. ^ Kunitzsch, Paul; Smart, Tim (2006). A Dictionary of Modern star Names: A Short Guide to 254 Star Names and Their Derivations (2nd rev. ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Sky Pub. ISBN 978-1-931559-44-7.
  16. ^ a b Richard Hinckley Allen: Star Names — Their Lore and Meaning: Virgo
  17. ^ "IAU Working Group on Star Names (WGSN)". Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  18. ^ "Bulletin of the IAU Working Group on Star Names, No. 1" (PDF). Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  19. ^ Allen, R. H. (1963), Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning (Reprint ed.), New York, NY: Dover Publications Inc, p. 469, ISBN 0-486-21079-0, retrieved 2010-12-12
  20. ^ (in Chinese) 中國星座神話, written by 陳久金. Published by 台灣書房出版有限公司, 2005, ISBN 978-986-7332-25-7.
  21. ^ (in Chinese) 香港太空館 - 研究資源 - 亮星中英對照表 Archived August 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Hong Kong Space Museum. Accessed on line November 23, 2010.
  22. ^ (in Chinese) English-Chinese Glossary of Chinese Star Regions, Asterisms and Star Name Archived August 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Hong Kong Space Museum. Accessed on line November 23, 2010.

External linksEdit