Ensi (cuneiform: 𒑐𒋼𒋛 pa.te.si Sumerian: ensik, "lord of the plowland"; Emesal dialect: umunsik; Akkadian: iššakkum) was a Sumerian title designating the ruler or prince of a city-state. Originally it may have designated an independent ruler, but in later periods the title presupposed subordinance to a lugal.
For the Early Dynastic Period (about 2800–2350 BCE), the meaning of the titles en, ensi and lugal cannot be differentiated clearly: see lugal, ensi and en for details. Ensí may have originally been a designation of the ruler restricted to Lagash and Umma. The ensi was considered a representative of the city-state's patron deity. In later periods, an ensí was normally seen as subordinate to a lugal. Nevertheless, even the powerful rulers of the Second Dynasty of Lagash (c. 2100 BCE) such as Gudea were satisfied with the title ensí.
During the Third Dynasty of Ur (about 2100–2000 BCE) énsi referred to the provincial governors of the kingdom. These exercised great powers in terms of government, tax revenue and jurisdiction, but they were supervised, installed, and dismissed by the lugal of Ur. Although the office could be inherited, all ensí had to be endorsed by the lugal. No independent foreign policy or warfare was allowed.
In the city-state of Assur, the hereditary ruler bore the Akkadian-language version of the title ensí, while the patron deity was regarded as šarrum "king".
- John Allan Halloran: Sumerian Lexicon. Logogram Publishing, Los Angeles (Cal.) 2006.
- "ePSD: ensik[ruler]". psd.museum.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
- Horst Klengel (Hrsg.): Kulturgeschichte des alten Vorderasiens. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1989.
- Saggs, H. W. F. 1988, The Greatness That Was Babylon (revised edition)
- Dietz Otto Edzard: Geschichte Mesopotamiens. C.H. Beck, München 2004.
- Jacobsen, Thorkild (Ed) (1939),"The Sumerian King List" (Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago; Assyriological Studies, No. 11.)