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EN (Borger 2003 nr. 164 EN; U+12097 𒂗, see also ENSI) is the Sumerian cuneiform for "lord" or "priest". Originally, it seems to have been used to designate a high priest or priestess of a Sumerian city-state's patron-deity[1] - a position that entailed political power as well. It may also have been the original title of the ruler of Uruk. See Lugal, ensi and en for more details.

Deities including EN as part of their name include DEN.LÍL, DEN.KI, DEN.GURUN, and DEN.ZU.

En-hedu-ana, Akkadian 2285 BC - 2250 BC was the first known holder of the title, "En Priestess."

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Amarna letters: bĂȘluEdit

The 1350 BC Amarna letters use EN for bĂȘlu, though not exclusively. The more common spelling is mostly 'be' + 'li', to make "bĂȘlĂ­", or its equivalent. Some example letters using cuneiform 'EN' are letters EA (for 'El Amarna') 252, EA 254, and EA 282,[2] titled: "A demand for recognition", by Abimilku; "Neither rebel or delinquent (2)", by Labayu; and "Alone", by Shuwardata.

Most of the uses are in the letter introduction, formulaic addresses to the pharaoh, stating typically to effect:

"To the King (pharaoh), Lord-mine, (speaking) thus...." EA 254

Bodies of the letters also repeat the phraseology of "King, my Lord", sometimes doubly as in letter EA 34, (using be-li, as bĂȘlu), "The pharaoh's reproach answered", by the King of Alashiya.

See alsoEdit

  • LUGAL "King or "ruler"
  • NIN - "Queen" or "priestess"
  • BĂȘlu - "lord" or "master"

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Saggs, H. W. F. 1988, The Greatness That Was Babylon (revised edition)
  2. ^ Moran, The Amarna Letters, p. 239, 307, 323.

SourcesEdit

  • Moran, William L. The Amarna Letters. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987, 1992. (softcover, ISBN 0-8018-6715-0)