Eastern Nilotic languages

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The Eastern Nilotic languages are one of the three primary branches of the Nilotic languages, themselves belonging to the Eastern Sudanic subfamily of Nilo-Saharan; they are believed to have begun to diverge about 3,000 years ago, and have spread southwards from an original home in Equatoria in South Sudan. They are spoken across a large area in East Africa, ranging from Equatoria to the highlands of Tanzania. Their speakers are mostly cattle herders living in semi-arid or arid plains.

Eastern Nilotic
Geographic
distribution
southwestern Ethiopia, eastern South Sudan, northeastern Uganda, western Kenya, northern Tanzania
Linguistic classificationNilo-Saharan?
Subdivisions
  • Bari
  • Teso–Lotuko–Maa
Glottologeast2418[1]

ClassificationEdit

According to Vossen (1982), the Eastern Nilotic languages are basically classified as follows by the comparative method. Vossen (1982) also provides a reconstruction of Proto-Eastern Nilotic.

Eastern Nilotic

It is generally agreed upon that Bari forms a primary branch, but lower-level splits are less clear.

Swadesh approach (Vossen 1982)Edit

Vossen's classification using the Swadesh approach is as follows (Vossen 1982:114).

Eastern Nilotic
  • Bari languages
    • Mondari
    • Kakwa
    • Nyanggwara
    • Kuku
    • Pöjulu
    • Ngyepu
    • Bari
  • Lotuko–Maa languages
    • Lotuko languages
      • Lopit, Dongotono
      • Lotuko, Lokoya
    • Ongamo–Maa languages
      • Ongamo
        • Maasai
          • Camus, Samburu
  • Teso–Turkana languages
    • Teso
      • Nyangatom
        • Turkana, Karimojong

Gleason approach (Vossen 1982)Edit

Vossen's classification using the Gleason approach is as follows (Vossen 1982:119).

Eastern Nilotic
  • Bari languages
    • Kuku, Ngyepu
    • Pöjulu
    • Kakwa
    • Bari
    • Nyanggwara, Mondari
  • Lotuko languages
    • Lopit, Dongotono
    • Lotuko, Lokoya
  • Teso–Turkana languages
    • Nyangatom
      • Teso
        • Turkana, Karimojong
    • Ongamo–Maa languages
      • Ongamo
        • Maasai
          • Camus, Samburu

Comparative vocabularyEdit

Sample basic vocabulary of Eastern Nilotic languages from Vossen (1982):

Language eye ear nose tooth tongue mouth blood bone tree water to eat name
Proto-Eastern Nilotic *-k₃ɔŋ- / *-k₃ɔɲ- *-ku-me / *-ku-me-t₂ik *-k₃ela- *-ŋa-dʸɛp- / *-ŋa-dʸɛp-a *-k₁ʊ-t₁ʊk- *-(a)k₃ɔt[2] *-k₃oyV-t₁- *-tʸani[3] *-pi- *-ɲa(m)- *-k₃a-rɪn-
Teso a-kɔ́ŋ-ʊ̀ á-kí-t e-kúmè e-kíàl-àì á-ŋǎjɛ̀p á-kɪ̀tʊ̀k á-àkɔ́t á-kóì-t ɛ́-kɪ́tɔ́-ɪ̀ a-ki-pí akí-ɲám-à é-kɪ́-rɔ́-rɪ̀
Turkana á-kɔŋ-ʊ á-kí-t é-kume ɛ́-kɛl-aɪ a-ŋajɛp a-kʊtuk ŋá-akɔt á-koí-t ɛ-kɪtɔ-ɛ ŋá-kɪpɪ akɪ-ɲam ɛ́-kɪ-rɔ
Nyangatom -kɔɲaːn gɪ-t̪e -kume n-kɛl -ŋajɛb -kutʊːk -qɔt ŋ-qöy-ɔ ŋa-kitɔ ŋá-kɪ́-pì tɛ-nɛm -kurɔː
Karimojong a-kɔŋ-u a-ki-t é-kùmé ɛ́-qɛ̀l-áe a-ŋadyɛ́p a-kit̪uk ŋa-akɔɔt á-qɔ̀ɪ́-t ɛ-kitɔ-ɪ ŋa-ki-piʔ aki-ɲam e-ke-ro
Maasai ɛŋ-kɔŋ-ʊ́ ɛŋ-kɪ-ɔɔk eŋ-kumé ɔl-alá-ɪ̀ ɔl-ŋɛ́jɛ́p ɛŋ-kʊ́tʊ́k ɔ-sárɠɛ́ ol-óì-tò ɔl-caní ɛŋ-kár-ɛ́ a-ɲá ɛŋ-kárn-á
Camus ŋ-kɔŋ-ʊ́ ŋ-ké-ok ŋ-kawar-íé l-alá-ɪ̀ l-ŋɛjɛp ŋ-kʊtʊ́k l-ɔɗɔ́ l-óì-tò l-caní ŋ-kár-ɛ́ a-ɲá ŋ-kárn-á
Sampur ŋ-kɔŋ-ʊ́ ŋ-kɪ́-yyɔk ŋ-kwar-íé l-alá-ɪ̀ l-ŋɛ́jɛ́p ŋ-kʊtʊ́k l-ɔɗɔ́ l-óì-tò l-caní ŋ-kár-ɛ́ a-ɲá ŋ-kárn-á
Ongamo na-hɔŋ-ʊ́ na-ʃɔ́ɔ ʃaɽ-íé ɔ-háa-ɪ ɔ-ŋɛ́jɛ́β-ɪ́ na-kutók na-hɔ́ɔ́t-ʊ́ o-hóí-to ɔ-ʃɛtá na-si-βí -am-/ɲ- na-hárn-á
Lotuko ɔ́ɲ-ɛ̀k é-yyòk á-ttàrɪ̀ álà-ɪ̀ ɔ́ŋàjɛ̀p ɛ́-ðùk ɔ́-ɔ̀ðɔ̀ a-xó-tìò á-yyànì á-àr-è á-ŋíyó á-fùrè
Oxoriok a-xɔɲ-ɛk e-yok a-xar-iɛ ɔ-xala-i u-ŋadiep a-xutuk a-xɔtɔ o-xoi-toŋ o-xyani a-xar-ɛ ɲo o-furɛ
Lopit xɔɲ-ɛk hí-yók hi-mó xalá-tì ŋájɛ́p xʊ́tʊ́k xɔ́tɔ́ xoɪ́t-òì yyánì hi-ɸí-òŋ dáxá ɸúré
Dongotono xɔɲ-ɛk cyɔ̂k hí-mè xalá-tɪ̀ ŋádɛ́p xʊ́tʊ́k ɔ-xɔ́t-ɔ́ xoít-ò sánì xár-ɪ́ ɔ-dɔŋɔ́ ɸúrè-ì
Lokoya a-ɣɔɲ-ɛk e-xi-yôk o-xi-môŋ o-ɣalá-í ʊ-ŋájɪ́p a-kʊ́tʊ́k a-ɣɔ́tɔ́ ɔ-ɣɔ́t-ɔ̀ŋ ó-yán-dɪ́k a-ɣar-ɛ a-ɲû o-vúré
Bari kɔŋ-ɛ́ súö̀-t kúmé kélê ŋɛ́dɛ́p kʊ́tʊ́k rɪ́mà kuyú-tìò kódíní pí-òŋ ɲésù karɛ́n
Kakwa kɔɲ-ɛ́ súè kúmé kálá ɲɛ́dɛ́p kʊ́tʊ́ rɪ́mà kʊ́yʊ́ kodiŋí píò ɲósù karɛ́n
Kuku kɔ́ŋ-ɛ́ súö̀-t kumé kölö́-ì ŋɛ́dɛ́p kʊ́tʊ́k ɓíyèt kú(y)ú-tö̀n ködin-î pí-òŋ yésù karɪ́n
Ngyepu kɔŋ-ɛ́ súö̀-t kumé kölö́-ì ŋyɛ́dɛ́p kútúk rɪ́mà kuyú-tyò ködin-í pí-òŋ ɲésu karɛ́n
Pöjulu kɔŋ-ɪ́n súö̀-t kumé kelê ŋyɛ́dɛ́p kutúk rɪ́mà kuí-sò ködin-í pí-òŋ ɲésù karɛ́n
Nyanggwara kɔŋ-ɛ́ ʃwö́-t kumé kelé ŋɛ́dɛ́p kʊ́tʊ́k rɪ́mà kuyú-tío ködin-í pí-òŋ ɲésù karɛ́n
Mondari kɔŋ-ɛ́ sʊ́-t kʊmɪ́ kɛlɛ́ ŋɛ́dɛ́p kʊ́tʊ́k rɪ́mà kú-cö̀ ködí ci-pí ɲö́sút karɛ́n

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Eastern Nilotic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Proto-Teso-Lotuko-Maasai
  3. ^ Proto-Lotuko-Maasai

BibliographyEdit

  • Vossen, Rainer. 1982. The Eastern Nilotes: Linguistic and Historical Reconstructions. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag. ISBN 3-496-00698-6.

External linksEdit