Duttaphrynus hololius

Duttaphrynus hololius, known as Günther's toad,[2] Malabar toad,[2] or rock toad,[3] is an uncommon, rock-dwelling toad found in the Eastern Ghats and Deccan plateau of peninsular India.[1][4][5]

Duttaphrynus hololius
Duttaphrynus hololius.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Duttaphrynus
Species:
D. hololius
Binomial name
Duttaphrynus hololius
(Günther, 1876)
Duttaphrynus hololius map-fr.svg
Synonyms

Bufo hololius Günther, 1876 "1875"

DescriptionEdit

The crown of this toad lacks bony ridges and has a short, prominent snout. Its inter-orbital space as broad and the upper eyelid; tympanum very distinct, nearly as large as the eye and close to it. Fingers short, first extending a little beyond second; toes short, webbed at the base only; subarticular tubercles single, not very prominent; two small metatarsal tubercles; no tarsal fold. The tarso-metatarsal articulation reaches the eye. Skin smooth, the back with very flat, smooth, distinctly porous glandular patches; parotoids flat. Olive above, marbled with brown: beneath immaculate.[6] From snout to vent about 2 inches.

DistributionEdit

This toad is known from rocky hillocks and outcrops of Bangalore in Karnataka, Hosur, Gingee and Javadi Hills in Tamil Nadu, Chittoor, Nellore, Visakhapatnam and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. (It was previously mistaken to be found in the Western Ghats).[7][8]

Natural historyEdit

This uncommon species of toad is very partial to rocky habitats; being only found in places with predominantly rocky substrate and boulder formations. Thought to be nocturnal and insectivorous; and to be become active during the rains. Breeds by laying eggs in stagnant ephemeral pools and ponds formed only on rocky surfaces, but not on soil layers. Tadpoles develop in ephemeral pools on rock scapes.[9][10] Young ones are very bright replicas of the adults; sporting vivid scarlet red spots on body. Its depressed body form may indicate a life suited for rock-dwelling habits.

The threats are not exactly known but habitat loss is possible; it also occurs in Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve and possibly but needing verification Bannerghatta National Park. It has a fragmented and declining population and there were no recent records until 2009,[11] when it was re-sighted in the Hosur Forest Division. Following this work more sightings turned out subsequently from Thommaguddai, Ambur Range, Tiruppattur, Vellore and it was seen three more times in 2012.[12]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b S.D. Biju; Sushil Dutta; Karthikeyan Vasudevan; S.P. Vijayakumar; Chelmala Srinivasulu; Gajanan Dasaramji Bhuddhe (2004). "Duttaphrynus hololius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T54665A11171073. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54665A11171073.en.
  2. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Duttaphrynus hololius (Günther, 1876)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  3. ^ "Duttaphrynus hololius". amphibiaweb.org. AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  4. ^ Srinivasulu, B., Ganesh, S. R., & Srinivasulu, C. (2013). New regional record and notes on historical specimens of Gunther Toad Duttaphrynus hololius with comments on other southeastern Indian congeners. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 5(13), 4784-4790.
  5. ^ Pillai, R. S., & Ravichandran, M. S. (1991). On a rare toad Bufo hololius Günther from Nagarjunsagar, Andhra Pradesh. Rec. Zool. Sur. Ind, 88(1), 11-14.
  6. ^ Boulenger, G. A. (1890) Fauna of British India. Reptilia and Batrachia.
  7. ^ Chandramouli, S. R., Ganesh, S. R., & Baskaran, N. (2011). On recent sightings of a little-known south Indian toad, Duttaphrynus hololius (Günther, 1876) with notes on its morphological characterization and ecology. Herpetology Notes, 4, 271-274.
  8. ^ Ganesh, S. R., & Asokan, J. R. (2010). Catalogue of Indian herpetological specimens in the collection of the Government Museum Chennai, India. Hamadryad, 35, 46-63.
  9. ^ Ganesh, S. R., Kalaimani, A., Nath, A., & Kumar, R. B. (2013). First observations on the larval characteristics of Günther’s toad Duttaphrynus hololius (Günther, 1876). Herpetotropicos, 9(1-2), 5-8.
  10. ^ Chandramouli, S. R., & Kalaimani, A. (2014). Description of the larvae of Günther's toad Duttaphrynus hololius (Günther, 1876)(Anura: Bufonidae) with notes on development and oral ultra-structure. Alytes, 31(1/2), 3.
  11. ^ "On recent sightings of a little-known south Indian toad, Duttaphyrnus hololius (Günter, 1876) with notes on its morphological characterization and ecology" (PDF). asiannature.org. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  12. ^ A. Kalaimani; Anukul Nath & R. Brawin Kumar (2012). "A note on records of rare and endemic Duttaphrynus hololius (Günther, 1876) from Tamil Nadu, Eastern Ghats, India". academia.edu. Retrieved June 29, 2015.