Duttaphrynus

Duttaphrynus, named after Dr. Sushil Kumar Dutta,[1] is a genus of true toads endemic to southwestern and southern China (including Hainan), Taiwan, and throughout southern Asia from northern Pakistan and Nepal through India and Bangladesh[2] to Sri Lanka, Andaman Island, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali.[3]

Duttaphrynus
A Duttaphrynus Couple during Amplexus.jpg
A Duttaphrynus melanostictus pair during amplexus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Duttaphrynus
Frost et al., 2006
Species

See text

DescriptionEdit

These toads are characterized by heads with prominent, bony ridges, such as a canthal, a preorbital, a supraorbital, and a postorbital ridge, and a short orbitotympanic ridge. The snout is short and blunt; the interorbital space is broader than the upper eyelid; the tympanum is very small, not half the diameter of eye, and generally indistinct. The first finger of these toads extends beyond the second; the toes are half webbed with single subarticular tubercles, two moderate metatarsal tubercles, and no tarsal fold. The tarsometatarsal articulation reaches the eye, or between the eye and the tip of the snout. The upper surface features are irregular and distinctly porous warts with prominent parotoids. These are elliptical and two, or two and a half, times as long as they are broad. The toads are brown above and yellow beneath, marbled with brown. Males have a subgular vocal sac and are typically 3 in long.[4]

This genus was previously assigned to the Bufo melanostictus group. Frost et al. suggested that species of the genus Duttaphrynus are only distantly related to other Asiatic bufonids and consequently moved these species to a separate genus in 2006.[5]

SpeciesEdit

Binomial name and author Common name
Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Bogert & Senanayake, 1966) Yala toad
Duttaphrynus beddomii (Günther, 1876) Beddome's toad
Duttaphrynus brevirostris (Rao, 1937) Kempholey toad
Duttaphrynus chandai Das, Chetia, Dutta, and Sengupta, 2013 Nagaland montane torrent toad
Duttaphrynus crocus (Wogan, Win, Thin, Lwin, Shein, Kyi & Tun, 2003)
Duttaphrynus dhufarensis (Parker, 1931) Oman toad
Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Günther, 1864) Himalayan broad-skulled toad
Duttaphrynus hololius (Günther, 1876) Malaba toad
Duttaphrynus kotagamai (Fernando & Dayawansa, 1994) Kotagama's dwarf toad
Duttaphrynus mamitensis (Mathew and Sen, 2009) Mamit's toad
Duttaphrynus manipurensis (Mathew and Sen, 2009) Mamit's toad
Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) Asian common toad
Duttaphrynus microtympanum (Boulenger, 1882) Small-eared toad
Duttaphrynus mizoramensis (Mathew and Sen, 2009) Kolasib's toad
Duttaphrynus nagalandensis (Mathew and Sen, 2009) Nagaland's toad
Duttaphrynus noellerti (Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 1998) Noellert's toad
Duttaphrynus olivaceus (Blanford, 1874) Olive toad
Duttaphrynus parietalis (Boulenger, 1882) Indian toad
Duttaphrynus scaber (Schneider, 1799) Schneider's toad
Duttaphrynus silentvalleyensis (Pillai, 1981) Silent Valley toad
Duttaphrynus stomaticus (Lütken, 1864) Marbled toad
Duttaphrynus stuarti (Smith, 1929) Stuart's toad
Duttaphrynus sumatranus (Peters, 1871) Sumatra toad
Duttaphrynus totol (Ohler, 2010)
Duttaphrynus valhallae (Meade-Waldo, 1909) Pulo Weh toad
Duttaphrynus wokhaensis (Mathew and Sen, 2009) Wokha's toad

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Genus Duttaphrynus named after Dr. Sushil Kumar Dutta" (PDF).
  2. ^ Qayyum, Abdul (2019). টাঙ্গুয়ার হাওর: জীববৈচিত্র্যের জীবন্ত মডেল (Tanguar Haor: Living Model of Biodiversity). Mohabritto (Issue 4), Dhaka
  3. ^ "Amphibian Species of the World - Duttaphrynus Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006". research.amnh.org. Archived from the original on 2007-07-21. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
  4. ^ Boulenger, G. A. (1890) Fauna of British India. Reptilia and Batrachia
  5. ^ Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006: The Amphibian Tree of Life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 364-365

External linksEdit