A duopoly (from Greek δύο, duo (two) + πωλεῖν, polein (to sell)) is a form of oligopoly where two sellers are the biggest in one market. In practice, the term is also used where two firms have dominant control over a market. It is the most commonly studied form of oligopoly due to its simplicity.
Duopoly models in economics and game theoryEdit
- The Cournot model, which shows that two firms assume each other's output and treat this as a fixed amount, and produce in their own firm according to this.
- The Bertrand model, in which, in a game of two firms, each one of them will assume that the other will not change prices in response to its price cuts. When both firms use this logic, they will reach a Nash equilibrium.
Characteristics of duopolyEdit
- Existence of only two sellers
- Presence of monopoly elements: so long products are differentiated, the firms enjoy some monopoly power, as each product will have some loyal customers
- There are two popular models of duopoly, i.e., Cournot’s Model and Chamberlain’s Model.
Modern American politics, in particular the electoral college system has been described as duopolistic since the Republican and Democratic parties have dominated and framed policy debate as well as the public discourse on matters of national concern for about a century and a half. Third Parties have encountered various blocks in getting onto ballots at different levels of government as well as other electoral obstacles, such as denial of access to general election debates. Since 1987, the Commission on Presidential Debates, established by the Republican and Democratic parties themselves, supplanting debates run since 1920 by the League of Women Voters. The League withdraw its support in protest in 1988 over objections of alleged stagecraft such as rules for camera placement, filling the audience with supporters, approved moderators, predetermined question selection, room temperature and others. The Commission maintains its own rules for admittance and has yet to admit a third party candidate to a televised debate.
Examples in businessEdit
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A commonly cited example of a duopoly is that involving Visa and MasterCard, who between them control a large proportion of the electronic payment processing market. In 2000 they were the defendants in a U.S. Department of Justice antitrust lawsuit. An appeal was upheld in 2004.
Examples where two companies control a large proportion of a market are:
- Airbus and Boeing in the market for large commercial airplanes. See also: Competition between Airbus and Boeing.
- Gibson and Fender in the electric guitar market.
- Guitar Center and Sam Ash Music in the musical instruments market.
- Televisa and Azteca in the Mexican Television market.
- RAI and Mediaset in the Italian Television market.
- Radio Televisyen Malaysia and Media Prima in the Malaysian Television market.
- Air Canada and WestJet in the Canadian Aviation market.
- Woolworths and Coles in the Australian supermarket market (share 79% of the supermarket market).
- Mitre 10 MEGA and Bunnings Warehouse in the Australian and New Zealand retail/trade timber and hardware market (Share 85% of the timber and hardware market).[not in citation given]
- Intel and AMD in X86 CPU market and Nvidia and AMD in consumer and professional PC GPU market.
- The BNSF Railway and Union Pacific Railroad have a duopoly on freight rail traffic in the Western United States.
- Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX Transportation operate a duopoly on freight rail traffic in the Eastern United States.
- Apple and Microsoft in the personal computer industry.
- Apple's iOS and Google's Android in the mobile operating system market.
- Globe Telecom and Smart Communications in the Philippine Telecomunnications industry.
- First American Financial Corporation and Fidelity National Financial in the American title insurance sector.
- DC Comics and Marvel Comics in the superhero genre.
- Varian Medical Systems and Elekta in the radiotherapy device industry.
- Pepsi and Coca-Cola in carbonated drinks market.
- Visa and MasterCard in electronic payment processing market.
- Du and Etisalat in the United Arab Emirates telecom space.
- Omantel and Ooredoo in the Omani telecom space.
In Finland, the state-owned broadcasting company Yleisradio and the private broadcaster Mainos-TV had a legal duopoly (in the economists' sense of the word) from the 1950s to 1993. No other broadcasters were allowed. Mainos-TV operated by leasing air time from Yleisradio, broadcasting in reserved blocks between Yleisradio's own programming on its two channels. This was a unique phenomenon in the world. Between 1986 and 1992 there was an independent third channel but it was jointly owned by Yle and MTV; only in 1993 did MTV get its own channel.
Duopoly is also used in the United States broadcast television and radio industry to refer to a single company owning two outlets in the same city.
This usage is technically incompatible with the normal definition of the word and may lead to confusion, inasmuch as there are generally more than two owners of broadcast television stations in markets with broadcast duopolies. In Canada, this definition is therefore more commonly called a "twinstick".
- "Complaint - ATR - Department of Justice". www.usdoj.gov. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- "Credit Card Antitrust Suit". mit.edu. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- "Amex is suing Visa and Mastercard". 15 November 2004. Retrieved 9 April 2018 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- http://www.weeklytimesnow.com.au/article/2008/11/03/20101_latest-news.html Weeklytimesnow.com.au - Coles, Woolworths still dominate
- http://www.insideretailing.com.au/Default.aspx?tabid=53&articleType=ArticleView&articleId=3709 Insideretailing.com.au Some positive signs in the Coles businesses under Wesfarmers
- Kramer-Miller, Ben (June 25, 2013). "Norfolk Southern Corp. Looks Like A Solid Investment". Seeking Alpha. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "comScore Reports June 2015 U.S. Smartphone Subscriber Market Share". comScore, Inc. Retrieved 2015-11-17.