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Dobrzyń nad Wisłą [ˈdɔbʐɨɲ ˌnad ˈvʲiswɔ̃] (German: Dobrin an der Weichsel) is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. It lies on the Vistula River in the vicinity of Włocławek. As of 2004 the town had a population of 2,400.

Dobrzyń nad Wisłą
Skyline of Dobrzyń nad Wisłą
Flag of Dobrzyń nad Wisłą
Flag
Coat of arms of Dobrzyń nad Wisłą
Coat of arms
Dobrzyń nad Wisłą is located in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
Dobrzyń nad Wisłą
Dobrzyń nad Wisłą
Dobrzyń nad Wisłą is located in Poland
Dobrzyń nad Wisłą
Dobrzyń nad Wisłą
Coordinates: 52°38′16″N 19°19′17″E / 52.63778°N 19.32139°E / 52.63778; 19.32139
Country Poland
Voivodeship Kuyavian-Pomeranian
CountyLipno
GminaDobrzyń nad Wisłą
Area
 • Total5.41 km2 (2.09 sq mi)
Population
 (2006)
 • Total2,269
 • Density420/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Postal code
87-610
Websitehttp://www.dobrzyn.pl/

Contents

HistoryEdit

FoundationsEdit

Settlement in the Dobrzyń Land is dated as far back as 1065 when the first mention of Dobrzyń (as Dobrin) comes from 1065.

In the 11th century there was a castellan stronghold here. From 1228, Konrad Mazowiecki allowed the military knights called the Dobrzyń brothers. The crusading Order of Dobrzyń was granted Dobrzyń as a base in 1228, although the knights were later incorporated into the Teutonic Order.[1]

High Middle AgesEdit

The 13th and 14th century was tumultuous time for the city. Despite, the town being accorded city rights by the beginning of the 13th century, and being the capital of a principality until the beginning of the 14th century it bore the brunt of the conflicts between the state of Poland and the Teutonic Knights to the north. A castle was constructed by the Order of Dobrzyń. In 1235, the castle returned to the Mazovian dukes. In 1329, it was taken by the Teutonic Knights, who returned it to Kazimier the Great after signing the Kalisz peace in 1343. However, the Castle was destroyed in 1409. It was also sacked by Daniel of Galicia, who was King of Galicia in 1240.

A city was founded here before 1230 probably based on the Lubeck law. In 1230 document records that Wojciech was village leader from an unspecified town, identified in the literature with Dobrzyń.

In 1239, the village administrator of Dobrzyń called Konrad is recorded.

A village governor of Dobrzyn called Gocwin, is recorded with the erroneous date of 1296 (the correct year is 1306).

Some time before 1319, the governance of the village changed from an appointed administrator to a town council. In 1322, the head of the village Council, called Lemko, was mentioned.

The letter of the bishop of Varmia claims that in 1323, Lithuanians attacked the dutchy of Dobrzyn and "Captured the city of Dobrzyn, destroying it by fire to its foundations; in it they killed two thousand people, while in the land itself of Dobrzyn — six thousand people of both sexes, also seven priests and forty other clerics whom... oh sorrow! they led away to perpetual slavery. Also they slew two monks of the order of St. Benedict, and burned ten parish churches, not counting chapels..." [2]

The date of the attack is presumed to be on September 14, 1323.[3] Chronicler Peter of Dusburg gives a figure up to 2000 people died in the sack. It took a long time for the town to recover from the attack, although the city retained its municipal rights.[4] it was no longer a Duchy.

During the raid of the Teutonic Order, the stronghold in Dobrzyń was attacked again in March 1329, when the towns mayor was killed by a catapult stone. In March 1329, after the siege, the Teutonic Knights occupied the castle in Dobrzyń.

After the peace of Kalisz between Kazimier the Great and the Teutonic Knights, Dobrzyń returned to Poland.

From the end of the 13th and at the beginning of the 14th century (1288-1327 and 1343-1352) The town was the seat of the dukes of Dobrzyn.

From 1380 the town was a fief of Władysław Opolczyk, who in 1392 gave in pledge to the Teutonic Knights. Thanks to the purchase of the pledge in 1404, the town returned to the kingdo of Polish[disambiguation needed] The Castle was besieged and burnt by the Teutonic Knights on August 18, 1409.[5] The Dukes of Dobrzyń ruled the town again from 1379-1391.

Władysław Jagiełło gave the rights to Dobrzyń to pledge to the Teutonic Knights, causing a legal conflict between Poland and the Teutonic Order which only ended on June 10, 1405, when Dobrzyń was bought by Poland.

But Dobrzyń was on August 20, 1409, captured by the Teutonic Knights again this time using artillery. The town was burned.[6]

Dobrzyń was returned to Poland at the First Peace of Toruń in 1411. The town became the seat of a judicial court at this time. Dobrzynia fell to the Swedish Deluge, when the city was looted and burned. Around 1388, a Franciscan monastery was founded in the city. In 1390, Władysław Opolczyk gave them some ground, and in 1395 Wojciech from Chełmica Mała of the Nałęcz family with his family gave monks 60 monies for the construction of a monastery church.

The semi legendary Nawojka is said to have been born here in the early 1400s, the daughter of the mayor.

Modern EraEdit

A Jewish community was established in the town in about 1765, and Jews at one time made up one-third of the total population, but most left for Britain and the United States in the years around 1900, with none remaining today.[7][8]

In 1807, Dobrzyń was incorporated into the Duchy of Warsaw.[9]

During World War 2 the Germans changed the name of the city to Dobrin an der Weichsel (1939-1945).

Currently, it is a local commercial and service center with few industrial plants (footwear factory, fishing cooperative, slaughterhouse, mill[disambiguation needed]). On January 1, 2018, Dobrzyń on the Vistula River had a population of 2,161.[10]

Famous peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Marian Biskup , Gerard Labuda , History of the Teutonic Order in Prussia , Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Morskie, 1986, p. 91, ISBN 83-215-7220-0 , OCLC 831220291 .
  2. ^ Antanas Klimas, Ignas K. Skrupskelis, Lituanus:Lithuanian Quarterly Journal of Arts And Sciences (Volume 15, No.4 - Winter 1969).
  3. ^ Barbara H. Rosenwein , Reading the Middle Ages: Sources from Europe, Byzantium, and the Islamic World, Second Edition (University of Toronto Press, 18 Nov 2013), page 392.
  4. ^ Janusz Bieniak, Reception of the Chełmno Law in Kujawy and Dobrzyn Land in the Middle Ages, [in:] Culmensia Historico-Juridica Study or Memorial Book of the 750th Anniversary of Chełmno Law, vol. 1, edited by Zbigniew Zdrojkowski, Toruń 1990, p. 194- 197.
  5. ^ Marian Biskup , Gerard Labuda , History of the Teutonic Order in Prussia , Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Morskie, 1986, p. 91, ISBN 83-215-7220-0 , OCLC 831220291 .
  6. ^ Mirosław Krajewski, Lipno County. Monographic and album materials , Brodnica-Lipno 2018, pp. 59-60, 526.
  7. ^ http://www.sztetl.org.pl/pl/article/dobrzyn-nad-wisla/5,historia/
  8. ^ http://www.jpreisler.com/Dobrzyn.htm
  9. ^ http://www.sgzd.com/historia.html.
  10. ^ http://www.polskawliczbach.pl/Dobrzyn_Nad_Wisla

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 52°39′N 19°20′E / 52.650°N 19.333°E / 52.650; 19.333