Roman Catholic Diocese of Autun

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The Diocese of Autun (–Chalon-sur-Saône–Mâcon–Cluny) (Latin: Dioecesis Augustodunensis (–Cabillonensis–Matisconensis–Cluniacensis); French: Diocèse d'Autun (–Chalon-sur-Saône–Mâcon–Cluny)), more simply known as the Diocese of Autun, is a Latin Church diocese of the Catholic Church in France. The diocese comprises the entire Department of Saone et Loire, in the Region of Bourgogne.

Diocese of Autun (–Chalon-sur-Saône–Mâcon–Cluny)

Dioecesis Augustodunensis (–Cabillonensis–Matisconensis–Cluniacensis)

Diocèse d'Autun (–Chalon-sur-Saône–Mâcon–Cluny)
Country France
Ecclesiastical provinceDijon
MetropolitanArchdiocese of Dijon
Area8,575 km2 (3,311 sq mi)
- Total
- Catholics
(as of 2012)
548,000 (95.3%)
Sui iuris churchLatin Church
RiteRoman Rite
EstablishedUnited: 15 December 1962
CathedralCathedral of St. Lazarus in Autun
Patron saintSt. Lazarus of Bethany
Current leadership
BishopBenoît Rivière
Metropolitan ArchbishopAntoine Hérouard

The diocese was suffragan to the Archdiocese of Lyon under the Ancien Régime, and the Bishop of Autun held the post of Vicar of the Archbishop.[1] The bishopric of Chalon-sur-Saône (since Roman times) and (early medieval) bishopric of Mâcon, also suffragans of Lyon, were united to Autun after the French Revolution by the Concordat signed by First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte and Pope Pius VII.[2] For a short time, from 1802 to 1822, the enlarged diocese of Autun was suffragan to the Archbishop of Besançon. In 1822, however, Autun was again subject to the Archbishop of Lyon. The diocese of Autun is now, since 8 December 2002, suffragan to the Archbishop of Dijon.[3] The current bishop of Autun is Benoît Rivière.

History edit

Christian teaching reached Autun at a very early period, as is known from the famous funeral inscription, in classical Greek, of a certain Pectorius which dates from the 3rd century. It was found in 1839 in the cemetery of St. Peter l'Estrier at Autun, and makes reference to baptism and the Holy Eucharist.[4]

Local recensions of the "Passion" of St. Symphorianus of Autun tell the story that, on the eve of the persecution of Septimius Severus, St. Polycarp assigned to Irenaeus two priests and a deacon (Benignus, Andochius and Thyrsus), all three of whom departed for Autun. St. Benignus went on to Langres, while the others remained at Autun.[5] According to this legendary cycle, which dates from about the first half of the 6th century, it was not then believed at Autun that the city was an episcopal see in the time of St. Irenaeus (c. 140–211). Another tradition current at Autun, however, names St. Amator as its first bishop and places his episcopacy about 250. The first bishop known to history, however, is Saint Reticius, an ecclesiastical writer and contemporary of the Emperor Constantine I (306–337).[6]

Early bishops edit

Euphronius, who became Bishop of Autun, is credited with the foundation of the first monastic house at Autun in 421, the Priory of S. Symphorien. In 1792 and 1793 the buildings were sold for the stone material and demolished.[7] In 1993 the remains were classified as an historical monument by the French Government.[8] In 452, Bishop Euphronius observed a comet, and sent a description of the event to Count Agrippinus, Magister Militum.[9] Bishop Euphronius and Bishop Patiens were highly praised by Sidonius Apollinaris, son-in-law of the Emperor Avitus and Bishop of Clermont Ferrand, for conducting the election of a bishop of Chalons in a particularly upright fashion, without simony, aristocratic favoritism, or submission to the popular will.[10] In 472 Bishop Sidonius invited Bishop Euphronius to Bourges for the election of Sidonius' Metropolitan.[11]

Beginning in 599, the Bishop of Autun enjoyed until the late 20th century the right of wearing the pallium of a metropolitan bishop, in virtue of a privilege granted to Bishop Syagrius and his See by Pope Gregory I (590–604).[12] Autun was to be a metropolis throughout its own locality, with second place in Gaul after Lugdunum.[13] Gregory was very eager to have a church council in France to stamp out the vice of simony, and he appealed to Queen Brunhilda to use her influence to organize it; he especially recommended Bishop Syagrius of Autun to the Queen as his most reliable agent.[14]

During the Merovingian era Autun was a politically important diocese. Two Bishops figured prominently in political affairs: Syagrius of Autun,[15] bishop during the second half of the 6th century, a contemporary of Germanus, bishop of Paris, who was a native of Autun; and Leodegar (St. Léger), bishop from 663 to 680, who came into conflict with Ebroin, Mayor of the Palace of Neustria, and was put to death by order of Theoderic III.

The Abbey of St. Martin was founded in 602[16] by Queen Brunhilda of Austrasia, and it was there that her remains were interred – the deposed monarch having been repeatedly racked for three days, torn apart by four horses, and then burnt on a pyre.[17] By the mid-tenth century, however, the abbey was no longer in operation. In 949 the Burgundian Counts Giselbert and Hugh imported monks from Cluny to reform the moribund monastery, and to elect their own abbot.[18] When the abbey was destroyed in 1793, Brunhilda's sarcophagus was removed, and it is now in the Musée Lapidaire in Avignon.

Councils of Autun edit

The first council was held in 663, 670, or 677, under Bishop Leodegarius, for the purpose of regulating the discipline of the Benedictine monasteries. Monks were forbidden to have 'special friends' (compatres), or to have woman friends, or to be about in towns. The council ordered all ecclesiastics to learn by heart the Apostles Creed and the Athanasian Creed.[19] This seems to be the earliest mention of the Athanasian Creed in France. The 19th century Benedictine Cardinal Pitra says in his "Histoire de St. Léger"[20] that this canon may have been directed against Monothelitism, then seeking entrance into the Gallican churches, but already condemned in the Athenasian Creed. The Rule of St. Benedict was also prescribed as the normal monastic code.

In a Council of 1065, Saint Hugh, Abbot of Cluny, along with four bishops, accomplished the reconciliation of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy, with Hagano the Bishop of Autun.[21]

In 1077 Hugues, Bishop of Die held a council at Autun, by order of Pope Gregory VII. The council deposed Manasses, Archbishop of Reims, for simony and usurpation of the see, and reproved other bishops for absence from the council.[22] In 1094 Hugues, by then Archbishop of Lyon, and thirty-three other bishops meeting at Autun renewed the excommunication of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, the Antipope Guibert and their partisans, and also that of King Philip of France, guilty of bigamy. Simony, ecclesiastical disorders, and monastic usurpations provoked other decrees, only one of which is extant, forbidding the monks to induce the canons to enter monasteries.[23]

There was also a Council in Autun in October 1094.[24]

In the 1150s a quarrel over jurisdiction and independence broke out between Bishop Henri de Bourgogne of Autun and Abbot Reginald of Flavigny. The quarrel became so serious that it reached the royal court, and continued there for some time. Finally, in 1160, King Louis VII ruled that his predecessors had infeudated the Bishops of Autun with the lands of Flavigny,[25] and that the Abbot of Flavigny was subinfeudated to the Bishops of Autun.[26] The ruling scarcely settled the quarrel, however, which dragged on throughout the rest of the century, requiring repeated royal intervention; conflicts appear repeatedly in the thirteenth century as well.

Following the beginning of the Great Schism in 1378, the bishops of Autun were appointed, as they had been throughout the fourteenth century, by the Avignon pope, now Clement VII. After the Concordat of 1516 between Francis I and Leo X, however, the King of France held the right to appoint bishops in France, with the consent of the pope. This arrangement persisted until the French Revolution.

Gabriel de Roquette was bishop from 1666 till 1702, through most of the reign of Louis XIV. According to the Duc de Saint-Simon, he was the model for the character "Tartuffe" in Molière's play Tartuffe.[27]

The devotion to the Sacred Heart originated in the Visitation Convent at Paray-le-Monial, founded in 1644, and now the object of frequent pilgrimages. Its promoter was Sister Margaret Mary Alacoque, a cloistered nun who claimed to have visions between 1673 and 1675, in which Jesus personally taught her the devotion.[28]

Revolution and aftermath edit

Much later, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, the future diplomat, Foreign Minister, and Prince of Benevento, was Bishop of Autun from 1788 to 1791. He participated in the Fête de la Fédération in Paris on 14 July 1790, and celebrated a pontifical Mass as bishop.[29] On 27 December 1790 he took the oath to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, and notified his clergy in Autun of the fact on 29 December, with the recommendation that they do the same.[30] He was elected Constitutional Bishop of Saône-et-Loire, but, eager to avoid further trouble, he himself resigned the Constitutional bishopric in January 1791.[31] But as to the Diocese of Autun of the Ancien Régime, that resignation required papal permission, and Pope Pius VI obliged by dismissing Talleyrand as a schismatic in a bull of 13 April 1791.[32] He continued to be a bishop, however, until Napoleon forced Pius VII to concede that the Bishop of Autun "might wear secular attire and serve the French Republic in an official capacity," something that Talleyrand had been doing anyway since 1790. The Pope, however, found no precedent in church history for a bishop being returned to the lay state, and refused to do so in 1801; Talleyrand was still a bishop when he died in 1838.[33] As a bishop Talleyrand carried out the consecration of two Constitutional bishops on 24 February 1791, the bishops Louis Alexandre Expilly of the Aisne, and Claude Eustache François Marolles of Finistère. The ceremony took place in Paris at the Church of the Oratory, and Talleyrand was assisted by the titular bishops Miroudot du Bourg of Babylon and Gobel of Lyda.[34] The consecrations were illicit but valid, and on 13 April 1791 a papal bull deprived Talleyrand of his faculties and threatened excommunication.[35]

As soon as Talleyrand resigned, the voters of the new Constitutional diocese of Saône-et-Loire elected a new bishop, Jean-Louis Gouttes. He had been a priest of the Roman Catholic Church for twenty-three years. He had been a vicar in a parish near Bordeaux, then at Gros-Caillou, and obtained a chapel at Montaubon. He obtained his own parish at Argellieres in the diocese of Narbonne in 1785, though he was chosen as one of the deputies to the National Assembly from the diocese of Béziers in March 1789. He served on the finance committee, and was elected President of the National Assembly on 29 April 1790. On 14 June he oversaw the passage of Article 29 of the Constitution, which removed the power of instituting bishops from the hands of the Pope.[36] On 15 February 1791 Abbé Gouttes was elected by an absolute majority of the representatives of the voters of Saône-et-Loire, meeting in Mâcon for the purpose of electing a new bishop in accordance with the Constitution of 1790.[37] On 3 April 1791 he was consecrated at Notre Dame in Paris along with four other Constitutional bishops by Constitutional Bishops Lamourette (Rhône-et-Loire), Périer (Puy-de-Dôme), and Prudhomme (Sarthe).[38] On 7 January 1794, however, Gouttes was arrested as a counter-revolutionary and crypto-royalist, and sent to Paris. He spent several months in prison, was tried on orders of the Committee of Public Safety, and sent to the guillotine on 26 March 1794.[39]

The diocese of Autun was without a bishop of any complexion until Napoleon came to power and decided that, for the sake of French unity and his own plans, peace had to be arranged with the Papacy. In 1801, under the new Concordat, Pius VII reorganized the episcopal structure of France and suppressed the bishopric of Mâcon. Bishop Gabriel-François Moreau, who had been Bishop of Macon but who had emigrated during the Revolution, was appointed Bishop of Autun on 20 July 1802.[40] He died on 8 September 1802 at the age of eighty.[41] The office of Archdeacon of Mâcon continued to exist, but its holder now belonged to the diocese of Autun, and was made a Canon of the Cathedral of Saint-Lazare. The Archdeaconries of Autun and of Châlons were combined into one office.[42]

In 1874 Adolphe-Louis-Albert Perraud was named Bishop of Autun, having previously been Professor of Ecclesiastical History at the Sorbonne. He was elected a member of the French Academy in 1882, and named a Cardinal by Pope Leo XIII in 1893 though the fact was not made public until 1895.[43] He died in 1906.

In the Diocese of Autun are still to be seen the remains of the Benedictine Abbey of Tournus[44] and the Abbey of Cluny, to which 2,000 monasteries were subject. Gelasius II (1118–19) died at Cluny, and therefore Cluny was the site of the Conclave that elected Pope Calixtus II (1119–24).[45] On 15 December 1962, the territorial Abbey of Cluny was attached to the Diocese of Autun, and the Bishop of Autun now enjoys the title of Abbot of Cluny.[46]

Bishops edit

To 1000 edit

  • c. 270: Saint Amator I (Amatre I)
  • c. 273: Saint Martin I
  • c. 273: Saint Reverianus
  • c. 310–334: Saint Reticius (Rhétice)
  • 355: Saint Cassian of Autun (Cassien)
  • c. 374: Saint Egemoine
  • c. 420: Saint Simplicius (Simplice)
  • Saint Evantius (Evance)
  • Saint Léonce
  • c. 450–490:Saint Euphronius
  • c. 495: Flavichon
  • c. 517: Pragmatius
  • Saint Proculus I
  • Valeolus
  • Proculus II
  • c. 533–538: Agrippin
  • 540–549: Saint Nectarius
  • Eupard
  • † 560: Rémi or Bénigne
  • c. 560–600: Syagrius[47]
  • Lefaste
  • Flavien
  • 625–630: Auspice
  • Racho of Autun
  • c. 657: Ferréol
  • 659–678: Saint Leodegar
  • c. 678–c. 690: Hermenarius[48]
  • 692: Ansbert
  • c. 732: Vascon
  • Amatre II
  • c. 744: Morannus
  • c. 755: Gairon
  • 765: Hiddon
  • Rainaud or Renaud I
  • Martin II
  • Alderic
  • 815–c. 840: Modoin
  • 840–842:Bernon or Bernhard
  • c. 843: Altée
  • 850–866: Jonas
  • 874: Lindon
  • 893: Adalgaire
  • c. 895–919: Wallon de Vergy
  • c. 920–929: Hervée de Vergy
  • 935–968: Rotmond
  • c. 970–976: Gérard

1000–1300 edit

  • ca. 977–1024: Gautier I
  • 1025–1055: Elmuin
  • ca. 1055–1098: Hagano (Aganon)
  • 1098–1112: Norgaud[49]
  • 1112–1140: Etienne de Baugé (Stephen of Autun[50])
  • 1140: Robert de Bourgogne
  • 1140–1148: Humbert de Baugé[51]
  • 1148–1170 or 1171: Henri de Bourgogne
  • 1171–1189: Etienne II
  • 1189–1223: Gautier II
  • 1224–1245: Guy I. de Vergy
  • 1245–1253: Anselin de Pomard
  • 1253–1276 or 1282: Girard de La Roche or de Beauvoir[52]
  • 1283–1286: Jacques I. de Beauvoir[53]
  • 1287–1298: Hugues d'Arcy[54]

1300–1500 edit

  • 1298–1308: Barthélémy
  • 1309–1322: Elie Guidonis
  • 1322–1331: Pierre Bertrand[55]
  • 1331–1343: Jean I d'Arcy[56]
  • 1343–1345: Guillaume I d'Auxonne
  • 1345–1351: Guy II de La Chaume
  • 1351–1358: Guillaume II de Thurey[57]
  • 1358–1361: Renaud II de Maubernard[58]
  • 1361–1377: Geoffroi David or Pauteix
  • 1377–1379: Pierre II de Barrière Mirepoix[59]
  • 1379–1385: Guillaume III de Vienne, O.S.B.[60]
  • 1387–1400: Nicolas I de Coulon
  • 1401–1414: Milon de Grancey[61]
  • 1419–1436: Frédéric de Grancey
  • 1436–1483: Cardinal Jean Rolin[62]

1500–1800 edit

From 1800 edit

Bishop Rivière
  • 9 April 1802–8. September 1802: Gabriel-François Moreau[72]
  • 1802–1806: François de Fontanges (with the title Archbishop)[73]
  • 1806–1819: Fabien-Sébastien Imberties[74]
  • 1819–1829: Roch-Etienne de Vichy[75]
  • 1829–1851: Bénigne-Urbain-Jean-Marie du Trousset d'Héricourt
  • 1851–1872: Frédéric-Gabriel-Marie-François de Marguerye[76]
  • 1872–1873: Léopold-René Leséleuc de Kerouara[77]
  • 1874–1906: Adolphe-Louis-Albert Perraud (Cardinal, Superior General of the Oratory)[78]
  • 1906–1914: Henri-Raymond Villard[79]
  • 1915–1922: Désiré-Hyacinthe Berthoin[80]
  • 1922–1940: Hyacinthe-Jean Chassagnon[81]
  • 1940–1966: Lucien-Sidroine Lebrun (d. 1985)[82]
  • 1966–1987: Armand-François Le Bourgeois, C.I.M.[83]
  • 1987–2006: Raymond Gaston Joseph Séguy[84]
  • 2006–present Benoît Marie Pascal Rivière[85]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ This was confirmed by Pope Lucius III in a bull of 21 March 1143 as an old privilege of Bishop Humbert de Baugé: A. Chaumasse, ed. (1880). Cartulaire de l'évêché d'Autun connu sous le nom de Cartulaire rouge (in French and Latin). Autun: Dejussieu. pp. 9–11.
  2. ^ As a child, in 1779 Napoleon had studied at the preparatory school of Autun. Sevestre, p. 33 n. 1. Norwood Young (1910). The Growth of Napoleon: A Study in Environment. London: J. Murray. pp. 96–97.
  3. ^ David M. Cheney, Catholic-Hierarchy: Archdiocese of Dijon[self-published source]
  4. ^ Lawrence J. Johnson (2009). Worship in the Early Church: An Anthology of Historical Sources. Collegeville MN USA: Liturgical Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-8146-6197-0.
  5. ^ Meyer, Wilhelm (1905). "Die Legende von Irenaeus, Andochius, Thyrsus, und Benignus". Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen. 8 (Philologisch-Historische Klasse): 62–73.
  6. ^ Gustav Krüger (1897). History of Early Christian Literature in the First Three Centuries. New York: Macmillan. p. 349.
  7. ^ Paul Muguet (1897). Recherches historiques sur la persecution religeuse dans le Departement de Saone-et-Loire pendant la Revolution (1789-1803) (in French). Vol. Tome deuxieme: L'arrondissement d'Autun. Chalon-sur-Saone: L. Marceau. pp. 499–501.
  8. ^ Monumentum Carte des Monuments Historiques français, Ancienne abbaye Saint-Symphorien à Autun
  9. ^ Arnold Hugh Martin Jones; John Robert Martindale (1971). The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire: A.D. 395-527. Vol. II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0-521-20159-9.
  10. ^ Epistles IV. 25: Sidonius Apollinaris (1915). Dalton, O.M. (ed.). The Letters of Sidonius. Vol. II. Oxrord: Clarendon Press. pp. 46–48.
  11. ^ C. J. Haefele (1895). A History of the Councils of the Church, from the Original Documents. Vol. IV (A.D. 451-620). T. & T. Clark. p. 19.
  12. ^ Pope Gregory I, Epistulae IX. 222 (July 599). Monumenta Germaniae historica: Epistolarum (in German and Latin). Vol. Tomi II, pars I. Berlin: Monumenta Germaniae Historica/Weidmann. 1899. pp. 213–214.
  13. ^ ...ut metropolis suo per omnia loco et honore servato ecclesia civitatis Augustodunis, cui omnipotens Deus praeeesse te voluit, post Lugdunensem ecclesiam esse debeat et hunc sibi locum ad ordinem ex nostra auctoritatis indulgentia vindicare.
  14. ^ Pope Gregory I, Epistulae IX. 213 (July 599). Monumenta Germaniae historica: Epistolarum (in German and Latin). Vol. Tomi II, pars I. Berlin: Monumenta Germaniae Historica/Weidmann. 1899. pp. 198–200.
  15. ^ Alain Rebourg (1985). Sept siècles de civilisation gallo-romaine, vus d'Autun (in French). Autun: Société Eduenne des Lettres, Sciences et Arts. pp. 146–148.
  16. ^ Jacques G. Bulliot (1849). Essai historique sur l'Abbaye de Saint-Martin d'Autun de l'ordre de Saint-Benoit: Par J.-Gabriel Bulliot (in French). Vol. 1. M. Déjussieu. pp. xxxviii–xl, 15–28.
  17. ^ Susan Wise Bauer (2010). The History of the Medieval World: From the Conversion of Constantine to the First Crusade. New York: W. W. Norton. pp. 249–251. ISBN 978-0-393-07817-6.
  18. ^ Constance Brittain Bouchard (August 2009). Sword, Miter, and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy, 980-1198. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-0-8014-7526-9.
  19. ^ J. D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio Tomus undecimus (11) (Florence 1765), pp. 123–128. For the creeds, p. 125.
  20. ^ Jean Baptiste Pitra (1846). Histoire de Saint Léger: évêque d'autun et martyr, et de L'église des Francs au septième siècle (in French). Paris: Waille. p. passim.
  21. ^ J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio Tomus XIX (Venice 1775), pp. 1039–1040. Carl Joseph Hefele (1871). Oden Jean Marie Delarc, tr. (ed.). Histoire des conciles d'après les documents originaux: 870-1085 (in French). Vol. Tome VI. Paris: Adrien le Clere et Cie, Libraires-Éditeurs. p. 418.
  22. ^ J. D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio Tomus vigesimus (20) (Florence 1765), pp. 489–492.
  23. ^ Mansi, Tomus vigesimus, pp. 799–800.
  24. ^ J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio Tomus XX (Venice 1775), pp. 799–802.
  25. ^ The grant had already been made in the 9th century by Charles the Simple, and was confirmed by Pope John VIII: Gagnarre, p. 74.
  26. ^ A. Chaumasse, ed. (1880). Cartulaire de l'évêché d'Autun connu sous le nom de Cartulaire rouge (in French and Latin). Autun: Dejussieu. pp. 14–16.
  27. ^ J Henri Pignet (1876). Un évêque réformateur sous Louis XIV (in French). Vol. II. Autun: A. Durand. pp. 539–570.
  28. ^ M.J. Bernadot, "Le developpement historique de la devotion au Sacre- Coeur," La Vie spirituelle 2 (1920): 193–215. Raymond Darricau (1993). Sainte Marguerite-Marie et le message de Paray-le-Monial (in French). Desclée. ISBN 978-2-7189-0607-2.
  29. ^ Lacombe, pp. 230–232.
  30. ^ Lacombe, pp. 241–244.
  31. ^ Lacombe, pp. 249–251. The fact is mentioned in Gouverneur Morris' journal on January 19. Charmasse, p. 56.
  32. ^ Lacombe, pp. 250–252.
  33. ^ Jean Orieux (1974). Talleyrand: The Art of Survival (Flammarion 1970, French ed.). New York: Knopf. pp. 283–286, 649. ISBN 978-0-394-47299-7.
  34. ^ Pius VI, Collectio bullarum, p. 50.
  35. ^ Orieux, pp. 84–86. Pius VI, Collectio bullarum, p. 53–54: Pariter declaramus suspensos esse ab Omni exercitio episcopalis ordinis, Carolum episcopum Augustodunensem, Joannem-Baptistam episcopum Babylonis, et Joannem Josephum episcopum Liddae, sacrilegos consecratores seu adsistentes, et suspensos partier esse ab exercitio sacerdotalis.... Those who had taken the oath to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy were given forty days to repent and repudiate their false oaths.
  36. ^ Charmasse, pp. 4–6; 12.
  37. ^ Charmasse, p. 68.
  38. ^ Charmasse, p. 77.
  39. ^ Charmasse, pp. 287–288.
  40. ^ La Rochette (comte de.) (1867). Histoire des évêques de Mâcon (in French). Vol. II. É. Protat. pp. 603–612. G. de Leusse (comte.) (1922). Le dernier évêque de Mâcon: Monseigneur Moreau, 1721-1802 (in French). Macon.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  41. ^ David M. Cheney, Catholic-Hierarchy: Bishop Gabriel-François Moreau[self-published source]
  42. ^ Etat du diocèse d'Autun, p. 2.
  43. ^ Salvador Miranda, The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Perraud. Retrieved: 2016-07-07.
  44. ^ Pierre Juenin (1733). Nouvelle histoire de l'abbaïe ... de saint Filibert, et de la ville de Tournus, par un chanoine de la même abbaïe (P. Juenin) (in French). Dijon: Antoine de Fay.
  45. ^ Mary Stroll (2004). Calixtus the Second, 1119-1124. Leiden-Boston: Brill. pp. 58–65. ISBN 90-04-13987-7.
  46. ^ David M. Cheney, Catholic-Hierarchy: Diocese of Autun-Châlon-sur-Saône-Mâcon-Cluny Retrieved: 2016-07-11[self-published source]
  47. ^ Gregory I. Halfond (2010). Archaeology of Frankish Church Councils, AD 511-768. Leiden-Boston: Brill. pp. 37–40. ISBN 978-90-04-17976-9.
  48. ^ He had been Abbot of S. Symphorien, and was appointed bishop by Childeric II in 675. Louis Duchesne (1900). Fastes épiscopaux de l' ancienne Gaule (in French). Paris: Fontemoing et Cie. p. 180.
  49. ^ Gallia christiana IV, pp. 384–389. Gams, p. 500
  50. ^ Francis Mershman, s:Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Stephen of Autun. Retrieved: 2016-07-07.
  51. ^ Gams, p. 500, col. 2.
  52. ^ Gallia christiana IV, p. 402-405. Eubel I, p. 72. Elected in 1253, confirmed in 1254.
  53. ^ Gallia christiana IV, pp. 405–406. Eubel I, p. 72.
  54. ^ Gallia christiana IV, pp. 406–408.
  55. ^ resigned on being named cardinal
  56. ^ translated from Mende: Eubel I, p. 342.
  57. ^ translated to Lyon
  58. ^ translated from Lisbon
  59. ^ resigned on being made cardinal in December 1378 by Pope Clement VII
  60. ^ translated to Beauvais
  61. ^ previously Dean of Autun; he was Administrator of Lyon in 1413
  62. ^ He continued to hold the diocese of Autun after being named cardinal in 1449. Gams, p. 500. Gallia christiana IV, pp. 419–421.
  63. ^ He had already been elected bishop by 10 July 1483: Eubel II, p. 80.
  64. ^ Eubel III, p. 96.
  65. ^ J.-Henri Pignot (1876). Un évêque réformateur sous Louis XIV, Gabriel de Roquette, évêque d'Autun: sa vie, son temps et le Tartuffe de Molière d'après des documents inédits (in French). Vol. I. Autun: A. Durand et Pedone-Lauriel.
  66. ^ Gallia christiana IV, p. 430.
  67. ^ Hugues Du Tems (1775). Le clergé de France, ou tableau historique et chronologique des archevêques, évêques, abbés, abbesses et chefs des chapitres principaux du royaume, depuis la fondation des églises jusqu'à nos jours, par M. l'abbé Hugues Du Tems (in French). Paris: Brunet. p. 197. Gallia christiana IV, p. 431. He was Almoner of Louis XIV.
  68. ^ Pius Bonifatius Gams (1873). Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. p. 501.
  69. ^ Bernard, J.F. (1973). Talleyrand: A Biography. New York: Putnam. p. 58. ISBN 0-399-11022-4.
  70. ^ Bernard, J.F. (1973). Talleyrand: A Biography. New York: Putnam. p. 60. ISBN 0-399-11022-4.
  71. ^ Annuaire historique pour l'annee 1848 (in French). Vol. 12. Paris: Société de l'histoire de France/Crapelet. 1847. p. 54. Anatole de Charmasse (1898). Jean-Louis Gouttes, évêque constitutionnel du Département de Saône-et-Loire, et le culte catholique à Autun pendant la Révolution (in French). Autun: Dejussieu.
  72. ^ He had previously been Bishop of Vence (1759-1764) and Bishop of Macon (1764-1801). Ritzler and Sefrin (1958), Hierarchia catholica VI, pp. 281 and 434. He had stayed in his diocese during the Revolution, but, after six months of imprisonment, fled to London without resigning. Joseph F. Byrnes (2014). Priests of the French Revolution: Saints and Renegades in a New Political Era. University Park PA USA: Penn State Press. pp. 217–219. ISBN 978-0-271-06490-1. Mémoire des évêques françois résidens à Londres, qui n'ont pas donné leur démission. London: Cox and Son and Baylis-Prosper. 1802. p. 76.
  73. ^ He had been Almoner of Marie Antoinette in 1772, Bishop of Nancy in 1783, Archbishop of Toulouse in 1787. He had emigrated. In 1801 he submitted his resignation as Archbishop of Toulouse to Pius VII, and in 1802 was named Bishop of Autun. Al. du Mège (1844). Histoire générale de Languedoc: avec des notes et les pièces justificatives, composée ... (in French). Vol. Tome VII. Toulouse: J.B. Paya. pp. 33–34. Regnier, p. 254-255.
  74. ^ M. L. Sandret, ed. (1867). Revue d'histoire nobiliaire et d'archéologie héraldique (in French). Vol. n.a. Tome troisième. Paris: Dumoulin. p. 469. {{cite book}}: |volume= has extra text (help)
  75. ^ Paul Muguet (1901). Recherches historiques sur la persécution religieuse dans le département de Saone-et-Loire pendant la Révolution, 1789-1803 (in French). Vol. Tome III. Chalon-sur-Saone: Typ. et lithographie de L. Marceau. p. 436.
  76. ^ Pierre Moulier (n.d.). Frédéric de Marguerye, un évêque archéologue dans le Cantal (1837-1852) (in French). Saint-Flour: Cantal Patrimoine. GGKEY:G9NK741NKQ7.
  77. ^ Alfred Le Roy (chanoine.) (1932). Un évêque breton, Mgr Léopold de Léséleuc de Kerouara, évêque d'Autun, Châlons et Mâcon (1814-1873) (in French). Quimper: Impr. cornouaillaise.
  78. ^ Anne-Marie Lafay (2000). Autun à la fin du XIXème siècle (in French). Château-Chinon: Académie du Morvan. p. 119. ISBN 978-2-9509271-3-2.
  79. ^ His death notice, by Canon Louis Marcel in Bulletin de la société historique et archaeologique de Langres VII (1915), pp. 107–110.
  80. ^ Regnier, p. 314.
  81. ^ David M. Cheney, Catholic-Hierarchy: Bishop Hyacinthe-Jean Chassagnon. Retrieved: 2016-07-08[self-published source]
  82. ^ David M. Cheney, Catholic-Hierarchy: Bishop Lucien-Sidroine Lebrun. Retrieved: 2016-07-08[self-published source]
  83. ^ David M. Cheney, Catholic-Hierarchy: Bishop Armond François Le Bourgeois. Retrieved: 2016-07-08[self-published source]
  84. ^ previously Bishop of Gap. David M. Cheney, Catholic-Hierarchy: Bishop Raymond Gaston Joseph Séguy. Retrieved: 2016-07-08[self-published source]
  85. ^ Diocèse d'Autun, L'évêque Retrieved: 2016-07-10.
  •   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Stephen of Autun". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

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46°57′N 4°18′E / 46.95°N 4.30°E / 46.95; 4.30