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A dication is any cation, of general formula X2+, formed by the removal of two electrons from a neutral species.

Diatomic dications corresponding to stable neutral species (e.g. H2+
2
formed by removal of two electrons from H2) often decay quickly into two singly charged particles (H+), due to the loss of electrons in bonding molecular orbitals. Energy levels of diatomic dications can be studied with good resolution by measuring the yield of pairs of zero-kinetic-energy electrons from double photoionization of a molecule as a function of the photoionizing wavelength (threshold photoelectrons coincidence spectroscopy – TPEsCO). The He2+
2
dication is kinetically stable.

An example of a stable diatomic dication which is not formed by oxidation of a neutral diatomic molecule is the dimercury dication Hg2+
2
. An example of a polyatomic dication is S2+
8
, formed by oxidation of S8 and unstable with respect to further oxidisation over time to form SO2.

Many organic dications can be detected in mass spectrometry for example CH2+
4
(a CH2+
2
·H
2
complex) and the acetylene dication C
2
H2+
2
.[1] The adamantyl dication has been synthesized. The adamantane dication

Divalent metalsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lammertsma, K.; von Ragué Schleyer, P.; Schwarz, H. (1989). "Organic Dications: Gas Phase Experiments and Theory in Concert". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 28: 1321–1341. doi:10.1002/anie.198913211.