Open main menu

Demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Population density in Bosnia and Herzegovina by municipality, early data from the 2013 census

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Vital statisticsEdit

[1][2][3] Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Infant mortality rate (per 1000 births)
1947 2 532 84 600 38 900 45 700 33.4 15.4 18.0
1948 2 586 90 700 41 600 49 100 35.1 16.1 19.0
1949 2 642 98 200 42 200 56 000 37.2 16.0 21.2
1950 2 661 102 680 35 991 66 689 38.6 13.5 25.1
1951 2 721 92 330 46 358 45 972 33.9 17.0 16.9
1952 2 779 112 216 34 817 77 399 40.4 12.5 27.9
1953 2 836 110 373 41 199 69 174 38.9 14.5 24.4
1954 2 891 115 854 35 158 80 696 40.1 12.2 27.9
1955 2 944 110 866 40 513 70 353 37.7 13.8 23.9
1956 2 994 111 561 38 320 73 241 37.3 12.8 24.5
1957 3 042 102 649 36 830 65 819 33.7 12.1 21.6
1958 3 089 110 332 30 123 80 209 35.7 9.8 26.0
1959 3 135 108 123 32 507 75 616 34.5 10.4 24.1
1960 3 180 110 499 33 360 77 139 34.7 10.5 24.3
1961 3 225 108 076 29 413 78 663 33.5 9.1 24.4
1962 3 271 106 826 31 087 75 739 32.7 9.5 23.2
1963 3 315 104 240 29 161 75 079 31.4 8.8 22.6
1964 3 357 101 147 29 846 71 301 30.1 8.9 21.2
1965 3 396 101 351 27 814 73 537 29.8 8.2 21.7
1966 3 433 97 689 25 138 72 551 28.5 7.3 21.1
1967 3 466 92 972 26 195 66 777 26.8 7.6 19.3
1968 3 498 89 134 26 031 63 103 25.5 7.4 18.0
1969 3 531 87 687 27 805 59 882 24.8 7.9 17.0
1970 3 564 79 296 26 355 52 941 22.2 7.4 14.9
1971 3 600 82 694 24 915 57 779 23.0 6.9 16.0
1972 3 637 82 068 26 844 55 224 22.6 7.4 15.2
1973 3 675 77 896 24 672 53 224 21.2 6.7 14.5
1974 3 712 77 833 23 661 54 172 21.0 6.4 14.6
1975 3 747 78 844 25 571 53 273 21.0 6.8 14.2
1976 3 781 79 061 25 178 53 883 20.9 6.7 14.3
1977 3 813 75 669 24 821 50 848 19.8 6.5 13.3
1978 3 844 73 306 26 016 47 290 19.1 6.8 12.3
1979 3 878 71 120 25 370 45 750 18.3 6.5 11.8
1980 3 914 70 928 26 115 44 813 18.1 6.7 11.4
1981 3 950 71 031 26 222 44 809 18.0 6.6 11.3
1982 3 986 73 375 26 775 46 600 18.4 6.7 11.7
1983 4 025 74 296 29 999 44 297 18.5 7.5 11.0
1984 4 070 74 539 29 046 45 493 18.3 7.1 11.2
1985 4 122 72 722 28 966 43 756 17.6 7.0 10.6
1986 4 189 71 203 29 127 42 076 17.0 7.0 10.0
1987 4 267 70 898 29 382 41 516 16.6 6.9 9.7
1988 4 332 70 711 29 559 41 152 16.3 6.8 9.5
1989 4 353 66 809 30 383 36 426 15.3 7.0 8.4
1990 4 308 66 952 29 093 37 859 15.5 6.8 8.8
1991 4 163 64 769 31 411 33 358 15.6 7.5 8.0
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996 3 645 46 594 25 152 21 442 12.8 6.9 5.9 1.647 14.0
1997 3 738 48 397 27 875 20 522 12.9 7.5 5.5 1.684 12.4
1998 3 653 45 007 28 679 16 328 12.3 7.9 4.5 1.558 11.0
1999 3 725 42 464 28 637 13 827 11.4 7.7 3.7 1.362 10.1
2000 3 781 39 563 30 482 9 081 10.5 8.1 2.4 1.300 9.7
2001 3 798 37 717 30 325 7 392 9.9 8.0 1.9 1.400 7.6
2002 3 828 35 587 30 155 5 432 9.3 7.9 1.4 1.200 9.4
2003 3 833 35 234 31 757 3 477 9.2 8.3 0.9 1.215 7.6
2004 3 843 35 151 32 616 2 535 9.2 8.5 0.7 1.217 7.2
2005 3 843 34 627 34 402 225 9.0 9.0 0.1 1.200 6.7
2006 3 843 34 033 33 221 812 8.9 8.6 0.3 1.176 7.5
2007 3 843 33 835 35 044 -1 209 8.8 9.1 -0.3 1.258 6.8
2008 3 842 34 176 34 026 150 8.9 8.9 0.0 1.285 6.9
2009 3 843 34 550 35 904 - 354 9.0 9.1 -0.1 1.303 6.5
2010 3 843 33 528 35 118 -1 590 8.7 9.1 -0.4 1.266 6.4
2011 3 840 31 811 35 028 -3 217 8.3 9.1 -0.8 1.205 5.8
2012 3 836 32 547 35 817 -3 270 8.5 9.3 -0.8 1.349 5.4
2013 3 531 30 684 35 662 -4 978 8.7 10.1 -1.4 1.276 5.9
2014 3 526 30 268 35 980 -5 712 8.6 10.2 -1.6 1.258 5.2
2015 3 518 29 770 38 150 -8 380 8.5 10.8 - 2.3 1.242 6.1
2016 3 511 29 276 35 530 -6 254 8.6 10.4 - 1.8 1.258 5.9
2017 3 347 29 158 36 336 -7 178 8.7 10.8 -2.1 1.30
2018 [p] 3 272 28 555 36 305 -7 750 8.7 11.1 -2.4 1.31 5.4

Current vital statisticsEdit

[4]

Births

  • from January-June 2018 =   13,045
  • from January-June 2019 =   12,762

Deaths

  • from January-June 2018 =   18,639
  • from January-June 2019 =   19,374

Natural growth

  • from January-June 2018 =   -5,594
  • from January-June 2019 =   -6,612

Life expectancy at birthEdit

Period Life expectancy in
Years[5]
1950–1955 53.67
1955–1960   58.46
1960–1965   61.93
1965–1970   64.73
1970–1975   67.57
1975–1980   69.87
1980–1985   70.72
1985–1990   71.95
1990–1995   70.13
1995–2000   73.61
2000–2005   74.83
2005–2010   75.53
2010–2015   76.31

Ethnic groupsEdit

According to data from the 2013 census published by the Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosniaks constitute 50.11% of the population, Bosnian Serbs 30.78%, Bosnian Croats 15.43%, and others form 2.73%, with the remaining respondents not declaring their ethnicity or not answering.[6]

The census results are contested by the Republika Srpska statistical office and by Bosnian Serb politicians,[7] who oppose the inclusion of non-permanent Bosnian residents in the figures.[8]

The European Union's statistics office, Eurostat, determined that the methodology used by the Bosnian statistical agency was in line with international recommendations.[9]

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, religion is often linked to ethnicity, i.e. (with the exception of agnostics and atheists) most Bosniaks are Muslim, Serbs are Orthodox Christian, and Croats are Roman Catholic.

Population of Bosnia and Herzegovina according to ethnic group 1948–1996
Ethnic
group
census 1948 census 1953 census 1961 census 1971 census 1981 census 1991 census UNHCR 1996 census 2013[10] change 1991–2013
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Bosniaks 788,403 30.7 891,800 31.3 842,248 25.7 1,482,430 39.6 1,629,924 39.5 1,902,956 43.5 1,805,910 46.1 1,769,592 50.11 -133,364 +6.6pp
Serbs 1,136,116 44.3 1,264,372 44.4 1,406,057 42.9 1,393,148 37.2 1,320,644 32.0 1,366,104 31.2 1,484,530 37.9 1,086,733 30.78 -279,371 -0.43pp
Croats 614,123 23.9 654,229 23.0 711,665 21.7 772,491 20.6 758,136 18.4 760,852 17.4 571,317 14.6 544,780 15.43 -216,072 -1.95pp
Yugoslavs 275,883 8.4 43,796 1.2 326,280 7.9 242,682 5.5 2,570 0.08
Montenegrins 3,094 0.1 7,336 0.3 12,828 0.4 13,021 0.3 14,114 0.3 10,071 0.2 1,883 0.05
Roma 442 0.0 2,297 0.1 588 0.0 1,456 0.0 7,251 0.2 8,864 0.2 12,583 0.36
Albanians 3,642 0.1 3,764 0.1 4,396 0.1 4,925 0.1 2,569 0.08
Others/undeclared 23,099 0.9 27,756 1.0 28,679 0.8 36,005 1 63,263 1.5 80,579 1.9 58,196 1.5 110,449 3.1
Total 2,565,277 2,847,790 3,277,948 3,746,111 4,124,008 4,376,403 3,919,953 3,531,159

LanguagesEdit

Bosnia's constitution does not specify any official languages;[11][12][13] however, academics Hilary Footitt and Michael Kelly note that the Dayton Agreement states that it is "done in Bosnian, Croatian, English and Serbian", and they describe this as the "de facto recognition of three official languages" at the state level. The equal status of Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian was verified by the Constitutional Court in 2000.[13] It ruled that the provisions of the Federation and Republika Srpska constitutions on language were incompatible with the state constitution, since they only recognised "Bosniak" and Croatian (in the case of the Federation) and Serbian (in the case of Republika Srpska) as official languages at the entity level.[citation needed]

As a result, the wording of the entity constitutions was changed and all three languages were made official in both entities.[13] The three languages are mutually intelligible and are also known collectively as Serbo-Croatian. Use of one of the three varieties has become a marker of ethnic identity.[14] Michael Kelly and Catherine Baker argue: "The three official languages of today's Bosnian state...represent the symbolic assertion of national identity over the pragmatism of mutual intelligibility".[15]

All standard varieties are based on the Ijekavian varieties of the Shtokavian dialect (non-standard spoken varieties including, beside Ijekavian, also Ikavian Shtokavian). Serbian and Bosnian are written in both Latin and Cyrillic (the latter predominantly using the Latin script), whereas Croatian is written only in Latin alphabet. There are also some speakers of Italian, German, Turkish and Ladino. Yugoslav Sign Language is used with Croatian and Serbian variants.[citation needed]

According to the results of the 2013 census, 52.86% of the population consider their mother tongue to be Bosnian, 30.76% Serbian, 14.6% Croatian and 1.57% another language, with 0.21% not giving an answer.[6]

ReligionEdit

According to the 2013 census, 50.7% of the population identify religiously as Muslim, 30.75% as Serbian Orthodox Christian, 15.19% as Roman Catholic, 1.15% as other, 1.1% as agnostic or atheist, with the remainder not declaring their religion or not answering.[6] A 2012 survey found that 47% of Bosnia's Muslims are non-denominational Muslims, while 45% follow Sunnism.[16] In Bosnia and Herzegovina religion is strongly linked to ethnicity.

Demographic statisticsEdit

 
Population pyramid 2016

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

PopulationEdit

3,405,891 (July 2018 est.)

Age structureEdit

0–14 years: 13.24% (male 263,338/female 246,220)
15–24 years: 11.26% (male 223,824/female 209,829)
25–54 years: 45.51% (male 881,331/female 870,601)
55–64 years: 14.95% (male 278,460/female 297,231)
65 years and over: 15.04% (male 229,282/female 349,775) (2018 est.)

Median ageEdit

Total: 42.5 years
Male: 40.9 years
Female: 43.9 years (2018 est.)

Sex ratioEdit

At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0–14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15–24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25–54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rateEdit

Total: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)

Life expectancy at birthEdit

Total population: 77.1 years
Male: 74.1 years
Female: 80.3 years (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDSEdit

Adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2007 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 900 (2007 est.)
Deaths: 100 (2001 est.)

LiteracyEdit

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98.5%
Male: 99.5%
Female: 97.5% (2015 est.)

Largest settlements by populationEdit

01. Sarajevo 348.996 (FBiH/RS)
02. Banja Luka 138.963 (RS)
03. Tuzla 74.457 (FBiH)
04. Zenica 70.553 (FBiH)
05. Mostar 60.195 (FBiH)
06. Bijeljina 42.278 (RS)
07. Brčko 39.983 (DB)
08. Bihać 39.690 (FBiH)
09. Prijedor 29.555 (RS)
10. Doboj 25.132 (RS)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Démographie des pays développés - Bases de données en ligne - Les chiffres - Ined - Institut national d'études démographiques". Ined.fr. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  2. ^ "Agencija za statistiku BiH". Bhas.ba. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  3. ^ "DEMOGRAPHY 2013" (PDF). Tematski Bilten. Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ISSN 1840-104X.
  4. ^ Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina (in Croation) http://bhas.gov.ba/. Retrieved 2019-11-13. Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)[verification needed]
  5. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  6. ^ a b c "Census of population, households and dwellings in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2013: Final results" (PDF). Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. June 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  7. ^ Toe, Rodolfo (30 June 2016). "Census Reveals Bosnia's Changed Demography". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  8. ^ Toe, Rodolfo (30 June 2016). "Bosnia to Publish Census Without Serb Agreement". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  9. ^ "Bosnia-Herzegovina has lost a fifth of its pre-war population". The Guardian. 2016.
  10. ^ "1. Stanovništvo prema etničkoj/nacionalnoj pripadnosti - detaljna klasifikacija". Popis.gov.ba. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  11. ^ Faingold, Eduardo D. (2004). "Language rights and language justice in the constitutions of the world". Language Problems & Language Planning. 28 (1): 11–24. doi:10.1075/lplp.28.1.03fai.
  12. ^ Sadurski, Wojciech (2005). Rights Before Courts: A Study of Constitutional Courts in Postcommunist States of Central and Eastern Europe. Springer. p. 342. ISBN 1402030061.
  13. ^ a b c Footitt, Hilary; Kelly, Michael (2012). Languages at War: Policies and Practices of Language Contacts in Conflict. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 111–120. ISBN 978-0230368774.
  14. ^ Greenberg, Robert David (2004). Language and Identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and its Disintegration. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925815-4.
  15. ^ Kelly, Michael; Baker, Catherine (2013). Interpreting the Peace: Peace Operations, Conflict and Language in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 10. ISBN 978-1137029836.
  16. ^ "The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity" (PDF). Pew Research Center. 2012. p. 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 January 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2016.

  This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2009 edition".

External linksEdit