David MacDonald (Canadian politician)
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The Honourable David Samuel Horne MacDonald PC (born August 20, 1936) is a lifelong Canadian educator, animator and political activist for environmental, economic and social justice. A United Church minister since 1961, he is also a former Member of Parliament, cabinet minister, and Canadian ambassador. His career has enriched the pursuit of progressive world order, the struggle for human rights in Africa, and the search for justice and right relations with Indigenous Peoples in Canada.
|Member of the Canadian Parliament|
|Preceded by||David Crombie|
|Succeeded by||Bill Graham|
|Member of the Canadian Parliament|
|Preceded by||New riding|
|Succeeded by||George Henderson|
|Member of the Canadian Parliament|
|Preceded by||John Watson MacNaught|
|Succeeded by||Riding abolished|
August 20, 1936|
|Political party||Progressive Conservative|
married Sandrabelle Rogers 1964-1997
|Occupation||United Church minister|
Early life and educationEdit
David MacDonald was born in Charlottetown on August 20, 1936 to parents Gordon MacDonald, a business owner, and Helen (McKie) MacDonald, oral historian, educational activist and broadcaster. He has a younger sister, Wayne (MacDonald) Storey.
His education and introduction to peaceful civil action began when his mother enrolled him in West Kent School in Charlottetown in 1942. Appalled by poor classroom lighting, filthy washrooms and absent fire escapes, she organized intermittent school boycotts, keeping David and his fellow students at home in protest. The boycotts worked, the improvements were made, and his mother went on to establish the School Improvement League in Charlottetown, and some years later the PEI Home and School Association.
MacDonald had a keen interest in photography, radio, movies and live theatre. In his early teens, with the assistance of his parents, he created a movie theater known as “The Junior Film Club” in the basement of the family home. Monthly, on Friday nights and Saturday mornings, he showed a mix of documentaries from the National Film Board, along with occasional comedies or westerns rented from commercial film exhibition companies in Toronto. Admission was 10 cents.
By age 17, Charlottetown’s local radio station, CFCY, had recognized his interest and hired him as a summer relief operator for $25.00 a week. He became a part-time announcer/operator with his own record program, “Saturday Record Time,” which concluded with the Hit Parade.
He went on to Prince of Wales College (1952–1956). As campus photographer and actively involved in variety shows and musicals. Several nights a week and on weekends, he worked as an announcer and disk jockey at CFCY in Charlottetown.
In 1956, he enrolled at Dalhousie University in Halifax and subsequently attended Pine Hill Divinity Hall (1958–1961). He was elected National President of the United Church’s Young Peoples Union of Canada. As a theological student, he chaired the student council and served as a Student Chaplain at the Halifax Prison (Rockhead) and the Halifax County Jail. While in Halifax he was a part-time news announcer at CHNS (1959–1961) and summer relief announcer at CBC Halifax in 1956.
In 1961, ordained as a United Church minister, he was selected as a delegate to the 3rd Assembly of the World Council of Churches in New Delhi, India. He spent several months travelling throughout Southeast Asia. The experience of that journey had a life-changing impact on him. His culture shock of meeting other youth from diverse cultures forced him to recognize how little he knew of the world beyond North American borders.
In 1962, MacDonald became a United Church minister for three congregations in the most western part of Prince Edward Island (PEI) in Alberton, Tignish and Cascumpec—a town, a village and a rural area, respectively. The communities were traditionally divided along rigid religious lines. Traditional Protestant churches were threatened by the rapid growth of evangelical and fundamentalist movements, and the gap between Catholics and Protestants seemed unbridgeable.
The arrival of Father Gerald Steele as the new Roman Catholic priest in Alberton encouraged MacDonald. They developed a deep friendship and were ready for a significant ecumenical adventure. In the brief span of two years, their teamwork of open and inclusive leadership working with farmers, fishers, youth and community leaders led to enthusiastic support from some and lots of raised eyebrows from others. They initiated joint congregational and youth events while endeavouring to build economic opportunities through coops and local tourism. Their most concrete achievement was leadership in the building of the Jacques Cartier Memorial Arena, a year-round facility (see ‘The Parson and the Priest’, CBC TV “The Sixties” 1964).
In addition to his active involvement in church and local affairs, MacDonald took an active part in the PEI Rural Development Council’s work towards province-wide projects and community schools. Meanwhile, he served as a Director (1962–1964) of the Atlantic Provinces Economic Council and on the National Board of the Canadian Chamber of Commerce.
In 1964 MacDonald was invited to work with three other Protestant ministers and three Roman Catholic priests to determine the theological rationale and intellectual support for the integration of the two existing post-secondary institutions, St. Dunstan’s College and Prince of Wales College, into a single inclusive university for PEI. His association with the 1970 creation of the University of Prince Edward Island (UPEI) identified him publicly and politically.
Within three years a CBC national television series, 20 Million Questions included him in their featured profiles of young Canadian politicians who might become future leaders of their respective parties with Jean Chretien, John Turner, and Charles Taylor. (30 March 1967 CBC TV ‘20 million Questions’ - "The Young Contenders", Jean Chrétien, David MacDonald, Charles Taylor and John Turner )
From Pastor to PoliticianEdit
When Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson called an unexpected election in 1965 to gain a majority government, PC Party activists urged MacDonald to run as their candidate. Although youthful by political standards at 29 years old, he won the contested party nomination, despite the challenge of running as a Protestant minister in an area with a significant Roman Catholic and francophone population. He faced Prince County’s incumbent cabinet minister, J. Watson McNaught, Minister of Mines and Technical Surveys. The Liberals brought eight federal cabinet ministers to the riding, including Prime Minister Pearson, to campaign—along with Premier Joseph Smallwood from Newfoundland, the only living Father of Confederation! Increasing the intensity of MacDonald’s campaign, then leader Rt. Hon. John Diefenbaker, still popular in the area, campaigned for MacDonald and the other candidates in PEI. All four PC candidates were elected on November 8, 1965.
MacDonald began a steep learning curve when Parliament convened in early 1966. He had not anticipated a political career. He knew extremely little of the arcane workings of the House of Commons and was a total newcomer to party politics and partisan jousting. As clergy in the national PC caucus, he was a novelty. When raucous party debates turned blue with swearing, members paused to apologize to MacDonald as the only Protestant minister, and to Jean Casselman Wadds, the only female MP.
MacDonald found the party deeply divided over Diefenbaker’s leadership. He was an early activist in supporting Dalton Camp who was openly calling for a leadership convention. As National PC President, Camp offered to run again, but on a single campaign issue: that his re-election would trigger an automatic leadership convention.
MacDonald joined Camp in meeting with Flora MacDonald, Lowell Murray, Norman Atkins and Paul Weed at a motel in Kingston for a weekend planning session for Camp’s re-election campaign. The following National PC meeting in Ottawa was acrimonious and divided. Camp was re-elected, committing the PC Party to a leadership convention in 1967.
Early in the Centennial year of 1967, MacDonald worked with Camp and his team to identify a new leader for the party. By June, Robert Stanfield, the well-known and respected Premier of Nova Scotia, had agreed to become that candidate. He joined a field of 10 other candidates, including five[JM3] former federal cabinet ministers, another premier, and former Prime Minister Diefenbaker. It took many hours and five ballots at the convention in Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto to elect Stanfield as the new leader.
In less than two years, MacDonald had progressed from a political neophyte to the new leader’s inner circle, becoming a political strategist with Stanfield and his team. MacDonald’s continuing friendship with Dalton Camp helped Stanfield to stay in touch with Camp when critical political or policy issues were at stake (“The Player” by Geoff Stevens).
Among MacDonald’s first parliamentary assignments was to the Committee on Broadcasting, Films and Assistance to the Arts. Its task was to examine the dramatic termination of the CBC’s controversial news and public affairs show, This Hour has Seven Days. With his background in broadcasting and key contacts in the CBC, he was able to play an active role in its investigation. (Toronto Star. Nov 28, 2014 ”Canada's most famous and controversial news and public affairs show.”) and “Inside Seven Days” Eric Koch[JM4]
He was soon working across party lines and developed what would become a long-term collaboration with Andrew Brewin, an NDP Member of Parliament. In 1966 they launched a human rights investigation into numerous human rights abuses in Portugal. Their Report on a Mission to Portugal (“A Mission to Portugal” 1967 Brewin and MacDonald https://lop.parl.ca/sites/ParlInfo/default/en_CA/People/Profile?personId=12366) was made public at a Canadian Conference for Amnesty in Portugal, held in Toronto on October 30, 1966.
Second Political MandateEdit
MacDonald’s second campaign in June 1968 took place during the election confirming the succession from Prime Minister Pearson to Pierre Trudeau. Though older than MacDonald, Trudeau’s youthful image and the subsequent Trudeaumania made him exciting. Emboldened, MacDonald cheekily remarked to Trudeau that if he wished to beat him, then he should come to his home community of Alberton, PEI. Trudeau did, and drew a large and enthusiastic crowd!
In facing opponent Mel Campbell, younger brother of PEI’s popular young premier, Alex. MacDonald’s re-election was not certain. However, as Stanfield was a respected regional figure, voters gave MacDonald a second mandate with an increased majority.
The War Measures Act and Human RightsEdit
The October Crisis in 1970 was widely seen as the worst national challenge since the Second World War. Following two kidnappings by the Front de libération du Québec, FLQ, a radical separatist cell in Quebec, Prime Minister Trudeau invoked the War Measures Act, suspended civil liberties, and challenged observers to watch what would come next. At one point, MacDonald cast the only negative vote against the Public Order Bill, which authorized key provisions of the War Measure Act (See “The October Crisis, An Insiders view” William Tetley). He found himself in the unexpected role of speaking for and to an outraged group of citizens who were concerned with long-term threats to civil liberties; as well as Quebec’s future in Canada (See “Strong and Free; A Response to the War Measures Act”; edited by MacDonald and Segal; and “No Surrender”, Hugh Segal p.24).
MacDonald in OppositionEdit
In 1969, MacDonald engaged a summer university student brimming with potential, Hugh Segal. Segal was a second-year student at the University of Ottawa and soon to become President of the Student Council.
MacDonald, with Segal and a group of Stanfield’s supporters, convened several weekend idea sessions to explore ways to support Stanfield. These weekend gatherings generated some advice and practical suggestions to assist Stanfield in strengthening his stature and role in the country (“No Surrender” Segal, p18).
From 1968 and through the general election of 1974 to 1976, MacDonald worked closely with Stanfield. In Stanfield’s second election in 1972 the outcome was a cliff-hanger, narrowing the difference between the Liberals and the PCs to only two seats. Following that election, Stanfield appointed MacDonald to head up the Question Period Strategy Group by preparing the caucus and the leader with tough questions for a coordinated, concerted and aggressive tactic for each day’s Question Period. This was a substantial innovation in normal House procedure. MacDonald’s recommendations on behalf of the group resulted in a Speaker’s list of the key opposition MPs to be called upon as questioners. This procedure has largely continued more or less ever since and has grown in significance particularly since the introduction of daily live TV coverage of the House of Commons in 1977.
International Humanitarianism and Global ActionEdit
MacDonald and Brewin made a dramatic and unannounced flight to the breakaway state of Biafra in Nigeria in September of 1968. They resolved to investigate and draw public attention to the humanitarian crisis that was taking place. (From Kinshasa to Kandahar: “Canada and Fragile States in Historical Perspective” Edited by Michael K. Carroll and Greg Donaghy; Chapter 3: ‘The Politics of African Intervention:: Canada and Biafra, 1967–70’ Stephanie Bangarth); and “Canada and the Biafran Tragedy” Andrew Brewin and David MacDonald)
For the rest of that year and through the next, Brewin and MacDonald were relentless in challenging the Trudeau government to respond to the humanitarian calamity. They urged support for peacemaking initiatives. Ironically, it was only at the end of the conflict and secession that there was a significant Canadian government change and response.
In 1976, Conservative MPs Brewin and MacDonald, together with Liberal MP Louis Duclos, participated in a fact-finding mission to Chile, Argentina and Uruguay on disturbing reports of massive human rights abuses, persecutions, kidnappings, disappearances and murders in those countries. Their report documented abuses and called for a Canadian and an international response. (“One Gigantic Prison: The Report of the Fact-Finding Mission to Chile, Argentina and Uruguay” Brewin, Duclos and MacDonald. Published by Inter-Church Committee on Chile, Toronto, Canada 1976)
In 1976, MacDonald served as international president of the World Association of World Federalists. In that capacity he worked with Canadian Liberal MP Mark MacGuigan and others to launch Parliamentarians for World Order (later transformed into Parliamentarians for Global Action), focusing on the United Nations and other international fora. In that same period, he participated as a parliamentarian in UN negotiating sessions on the Law of the Sea in the multi-year exercise to produce a new, comprehensive and effective Law of the Sea treaty.
In the mid 1970s, MacDonald, alarmed by the high rates of traffic accidents and deaths on PEI highways, produced, with assistant Fred Rumsey, a report titled Half in Five, setting out five key recommendations for reducing the rate of injuries and deaths by 50 percent. One of its principal recommendations was the legislated use of seatbelts, an issue picked up by the Ontario provincial election. As a result, Ontario became the first province in Canada to legalize the use of seatbelts in vehicles.
MacDonald appointed Cabinet MinisterEdit
In February 1976, following the resignation of Stanfield as leader, 11 candidates hotly contested the PC leadership at an Ottawa convention. MacDonald initially supported Flora MacDonald, but moved with her to support Joe Clark after she was eliminated.
As the new Leader of the Opposition, Clark created an Inner Shadow Cabinet. He appointed half a dozen key caucus members as chairs of wide-ranging areas of public policy. He chose MacDonald as chair of the Cultural Affairs portfolio as well as critic for Status of Women. MacDonald’s new positions required him to work with several other caucus members in charge of related, specialized policies; and to engage in a wide consultation on public policy issues.
Clark had also asked MacDonald to serve as a member of the Special Committee examining the government’s Green Paper on Immigration as well as of the Special Joint Committee on Immigration that followed. In the end, MacDonald disagreed with some of that Committee’s recommendations and voted against them. In sharp response, Clark removed MacDonald from the Shadow Cabinet. However, following public protests, Clark restored MacDonald to his position.
MacDonald’s several years of preparation enabled him to deal with a range of issues in the cultural and communications field when Clark became Prime Minister in June 1979. Clark appointed him Secretary of State (now Minister of Canadian Heritage), Minister of Communications, and Minister responsible for the Status of Women. Clark also mandated MacDonald as Chair of the Social Affairs Committee of Cabinet. Clark’s PC minority government was defeated in a confidence vote on the Federal Budget in December of 1979. (https://www.nytimes.com/1979/12/14/archives/canadian-government-is-defeated-on-noconfidence-budget-motion-prime.html)
MacDonald’s brief role as Minister of Communications and Secretary of State was significant in several ways. First and foremost, as one minister responsible for both departments, he coordinated his leadership of cultural issues in relationship to dramatically growing Canadian communications challenges. He acted to expand support for cultural industries in film, publishing and broadcasting. He worked with the leadership of Crown cultural agencies to ensure their mandates were in harmony with both present and future needs. He made it clear that the Clark government was concerned with the contemporary cultural needs and potential of the country.
MacDonald recognized the significance of new satellite communications and the early stages of fibre optics and Internet infrastructure. Demonstrating the importance of these innovations to staff and visitors, he installed in his office on Parliament Hill an early videotext/teletext machine, Telidon, as well as a satellite receiver.
MacDonald called for an update to the cultural policy set out by the Massey Commission in the 1950s. He appointed Louis Applebaum, then Executive Director of the Ontario Arts Council, to chair an Advisory Committee to draft a Blue Paper on cultural policy as input to a Special Joint Parliamentary Committee to consider future Canadian cultural policy. After the defeat of the Clark government, this evolved into the Federal Cultural Policy Review Committee co-chaired by Applebaum, with Jacques Hebert as co-chair (See “Louis Applebaum, A Passion for Culture” by Walter Pitman. 2002).
In the summer of 1979, the federal government resolved the issue of whether the monopoly of the telephone industry should be opened to competition. Most provinces were served by separate telephone companies strongly opposed to “interconnections.” On the advice of the Canadian Radio and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), MacDonald recommended to Cabinet that these telecommunications monopolies be opened to competition. MacDonald’s action helped set the stage for what became the Internet. He was also determined to provide essential and long-term support to Inuit Broadcasting and more distant parts of the country.
MacDonald recommended the selection of Professor John Meisel as the new chair of the CRTC. The CRTC was being called upon increasingly to respond to the fast-changing telecommunications scene.
As Minister for Status of Women, MacDonald supported a major increase in financial support for the Advisory Council on the Status of Women led by Doris Anderson. There was no doubt that he had the active support of Prime Minister Clark and his partner Maureen McTeer, indicated by the announcement of the Persons Award on the 50th anniversary of the 1929 Privy Council decision, which recognized women under the BNA Act.
Advisor, Advocate and Activist Edit
Following his political defeat MacDonald was appointed in 1980 as Fellow in Residence at the Institute for Public Policy in Ottawa. He with Research Associate Fred Rumsey as Research Associate prepared several documents for publication by IRPP on telecommunications policy. They dealt primarily with proposals for pay-TV and the expansion of the broadcast spectrum. (“Pay-Triation — Fulfilling a Canadian Promise” was published in The Introduction of Pay-TV in Canada (IRPP 1982), and an unpublished draft of television, communication and data possibilities for the 1980s and the 1990s was prepared but not circulated. MacDonald was a part of the TeleCanada application for a licence with Pay-TV, a universal, non-profit pay-TV service)
In the early 1980s, MacDonald also chaired the Canadian Interfaith Network. It created an application for a speciality TV channel to broadcast multifaith, multicultural and family entertainment programs. While that application was not accepted, a second application, re-named Vision TV, was successfully licensed in 1987.
Mark MacGuigan, as Minister of External Affairs, had proposed the creation of a Futures Secretariat in his first address to the United Nations in 1980. MacDonald was asked by the Board of the Secretariat to become the Executive Director. Its focus was global development issues, including environmental challenges. MacDonald was also a founding member of the Canadian Group of 78 International Policy forum.
Also in 1980 MacDonald chaired the International University Exchange Fund Commission of Inquiry into the Espionage Activities of the South African Government in the International University Exchange Fund. (IUEF: David MacDonald Fonds re International Board and Assembly of the IUEF)
His interest in international and global affairs continued as he gave the three leadership lectures at the UC Banff Men’s Conference in 1982 on the theme of oikos the Greek root word for economy, ecology and ecumenism. He chaired the press conferences at the 6th Assembly of the World Council of Churches in Vancouver in 1983 and participated as a Special Advisor at the 7th Assembly of the World Council of Churches in Canberra, Australia in 1991.
In 1982 Joe Clark, now Leader of the Opposition, invited him to as his Special Advisor and Program Director.
In 1983/1984, the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops appointed him Logistics Coordinator for the first-ever papal visit to Canada OF 1984. MacDonald was responsible for travel arrangements for Pope John Paul II. This included arranging to have two “pope mobiles” built in Canada by Thibault trucks previously known for its unique brand of firetrucks. In addition, he arranged for simultaneous interpretation and giant screens for each of the public masses and gatherings during the 12-day visit. With Peter Mansbridge, MacDonald was also one of the CBC national commentators on the live telecasts during the papal visit.
Activism and diplomacy on African Challenges Edit
In 1984, when unprecedented drought and famine ravaged 12 African countries, the Mulroney government recruited MacDonald to launch an African Famine Secretariat with a $50 million budget. The Secretariat worked with charitable and voluntary organizations to extend their efforts to assist in a massive international campaign to reach out to more than 30 million Africans who were at risk of starvation, and to mobilize aid for those who were in life-threatening situations.
(The African Famine and Canada’s Response 1984-1985; Forum Africa: Canadians Working together 1985-1986; Canadians and Africa: What Was Said 1986 and No More Famine: A Decade for Africa 1986?)
In 1986, Prime Minister Mulroney appointed MacDonald as Canadian Ambassador to Ethiopia, Sudan and Dijbouti (1986–1989) as well as Canadian representative to the Organization of African Unity and to the UN’s Economic Commission for Africa. During that time, a further drought threatened, but the danger of another famine was prevented when collective action enabled early pre-disposition of food aid, allowing people to continue living in their own home villages.
Return to elected politicsEdit
In the summer of 1988, following the resignation of David Crombie as the MP for Toronto Rosedale, MacDonald was persuaded to resign as ambassador and return to Canada to seek the PC nomination. In the general election that followed, he was narrowly elected by 80 votes over the Liberal candidate, Bill Graham.
As MP for Rosedale (1988–1993), he chaired the first permanent House of Commons Standing Committee on the Environment. Atmospheric issues such as acid rain, ozone depletion and most of all, global warming and climate change were the central focus of its five-year mandate. Climate change hearings and studies occupied hundreds of hours of the Committee’s attention. It heard from leading experts from across North America and contributed to ongoing work and discussions for the UN Treaty on Climate Change, negotiated and approved at the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992.
As Member of Parliament MacDonald founded and led the Ad Hoc Joint Parliamentary Committee on AIDS. Over several years, the Committee heard witnesses and tabled reports encouraging the federal government to increase its funding for AIDS research, urgent medical assistance and therapy needs.
In late 1992, He was appointed the Prime Minister’s Special representative on the civil war in Somalia to determine the nature of the crisis and what actions Canada should take to assist in providing humanitarian relief and support peacemaking initiatives.
He was defeated in the general election in 1993.
Adjunct Professor, NGO activist, and a third political ventureEdit
Following his participation in the Earth Summit of 1992, MacDonald chaired the Commons Group and Partnership Africa Canada and, as well, served as Honourary Patron of the Lambda Foundation.
MacDonald was appointed as an Adjunct Professor at Concordia University (1994–2004), where he taught in the Departments of Community and Public Affairs and Ecotoxicology. He offered courses on “Impediments to a Sustainable Society” and the “Pizza Parliament.”
MacDonald chaired the Global Assembly on Food Security at Quebec City in 1994, which subsequently became the Global Network on Food Security (1995-1998) operating under the auspices of the United Nations Association in Canada.
Following the 1993 election disaster, MacDonald witnessed the continuing impact of the Reform Party on what remained of the PC Party. He could see that the PC Party was being pulled to the right. Long known as a ‘Red Tory,’ MacDonald became convinced that the NDP was much closer to his political values. In 1996, he became friends with the new leader, Alexa McDonough, and informed her that he would be supporting the NDP. A year later, in 1997, the NDP in Toronto Centre nominated him as their candidate. While he doubled the NDP vote, he did not win.
Indian Residential Schools and the Truth and Reconciliation CommissionEdit
In November of 1998, MacDonald was appointed by the United Church of Canada as a Special Advisor to address widespread Canadian and church concerns arising from the tragic and troubling history of Indian Residential Schools. His work centred primarily on facilitating negotiations with Indigenous leaders and their organizations, survivors, the federal government, and church organizations. It took several years for the parties to be able and willing to meet one another and enter meaningful, helpful and just negotiations.
He actively participated in negotiations from 2001 onward towards a Comprehensive Settlement Agreement, which was finalized in 2006. This included a Truth and Reconciliation Commission that began in 2008 and concluded its mandate in 2015.
Continuing advocacy and activismEdit
MacDonald continued to participate, often as a speaker, at local, national and international conferences on the climate and ocean crises caused by, as he said, fatal addiction to fossil fuels. (https://arbtech.co.uk/can-we-end-our-fossil-fuel-addiction-2050/)
Over several decades, he pursued his goal of a more just economic and social system. From 2013 he continued as an international member of the Ecumenical Panel on a New International Financial and Economic Architecture convened by the World Council of Churches and other parallel organizations. Their work was based in particular on the 2012 Sao Paulo Statement: International Financial Transformation for the Economy of Life.
In early 2015, he delivered the first lecture at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia recognizing the 50th anniversary of diplomatic relations between Canada and Ethiopia.
In the summer of 2017, he conducted a series of breakfast seminars at University of Prince Edward Island entitled “Now that’s a Really Great Question – Can Mother Earth and her Peoples Survive and Thrive in the Anthropocene. In October 2017, he was the keynote speaker and facilitated an international Symposium on Climate Change and Human Health, also at UPEI.
Honours and Awards
St, Mary’s University, Halifax, NS in May 1980 LLD
University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PEI May 1981 LLD
Victoria University at the University of Toronto, Toronto, On. May 1986 DD
This Wiki entry is based on recently accessioned, extensive fonds held by Library and Archives Canada, most of which is open for public consultation. A Finding Guide is available from the Public Archives of Canada.
[JM1]Use endnote system, as per Wikipedia’s style.
[JM2]See Wiki’s guide to Citing Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources#Short_citations.
Include hyperlinks to names upon first mention.
[JM4]Again, see Wiki style for citations (especially on short citations, designed to prevent clutter).
[JM5]I have abbreviated this title, as short, succinct titles are generally more effective.
|Canadian federal election, 1997|
|New Democratic||David MacDonald||9,597||20.58||+9.80|
|Progressive Conservative||Stephen Probyn||8,993||19.28||-1.96|
|Canadian Action||Anthony Robert Pedrette||303||0.65|
|Natural Law||Ron Parker||270||0.58||-1.01|
|Independent||Ted W. Culp||145||0.31|
|Total valid votes||46,642||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1993: Rosedale|
|Progressive Conservative||David MacDonald||12,018||21.68||$60,961|
|New Democratic Party||Jack Layton||5,937||10.71||$44,872|
|Natural Law||Doug Henning||839||1.51||$37,086|
|N/A (Christian Freedom)||Linda Dale Gibbons||214||0.39||$200|
|Abolitionist||Y. Patrice d'Audibert-Garcien||43||0.08||$0|
|Total valid votes||55,437||100.00|
|Total rejected ballots||491|
|Electors on the lists||90,630|
|Source: Thirty-fifth General Election, 1993: Official Voting Results, Published by the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada. Financial figures taken from official contributions and expenses provided by Elections Canada.|
|Canadian federal election, 1988|
|Progressive Conservative||David MacDonald||22,704||41.36||-11.44|
|New Democratic||Doug Wilson||8,266||15.06||-2.77|
|Green||Frank de Jong||397||0.72||-1.15|
|Commonwealth of Canada||Paul Therrien||33||0.06||-0.27|
|Total valid votes||54,893||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1980|
|Progressive Conservative||David MacDonald||7,033||42.63||-13.44|
|New Democratic||Vincent Gallant||824||5.00||+0.51|
|Total valid votes||16,496||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1979|
|Progressive Conservative||David MacDonald||8,861||56.07||+3.82|
|New Democratic||Vincent Gallant||710||4.49||+0.98|
|Total valid votes||15,804||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1974|
|Progressive Conservative||David MacDonald||7,583||52.25||-3.53|
|New Democratic||Cletus Shea||509||3.51||-0.04|
|Total valid votes||14,514||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1972|
|Progressive Conservative||David MacDonald||7,868||55.78||+2.26|
|Liberal||George W. Olscamp||5,681||40.28||-4.02|
|New Democratic||Carroll L. Kadey||501||3.55||+1.37|
|Social Credit||Hugh G. Ryan||55||0.39|
|Total valid votes||14,105||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1968|
|Progressive Conservative||David MacDonald||7,182||53.52|
|Liberal||J. Melville Campbell||5,945||44.30|
|New Democratic||Harvey Dawson||292||2.18|
|Total valid votes||13,419||100.00|
|Canadian federal election, 1965|
|Progressive Conservative||David MacDonald||9,082|
|Liberal||John Watson MacNaught||8,312|
|New Democratic||Harvey Dawson||384|
- David MacDonald (Canadian politician) – Parliament of Canada biography
- United Church of Canada's appointment as Special Advisor for Residential Schools
| Minister responsible for the Status of Women
4 June 1979 – 2 March 1980
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to David MacDonald (Canadian politician).|