Darwin–Wedgwood family

The Darwin–Wedgwood family are persons descended from both of two particular prominent 18th-century men: Erasmus Darwin, a physician and natural philosopher, and Josiah Wedgwood, founder of the eponymous Wedgwood and Sons pottery company.

The most notable member of the family was Charles Darwin, a grandson to each. The family also included at least ten Fellows of the Royal Society, and several artists and poets (among whom was the 20th-century composer Ralph Vaughan Williams). Presented below are brief biographical descriptions and genealogical information, and mentions of some notable descendants. (The individuals are listed by year of birth and grouped into generations.) The relationship to Francis Galton, and to his immediate ancestors, is also given. (Note, however, that the data tree below is not intended to include all descendants, nor is it intended to include all prominent descendants.)

Darwin–Wedgwood–Galton family tree
Erasmus DarwinRobert Darwin of ElstonDr Robert Waring DarwinCharles Darwin (naturalist)Josiah WedgwoodMary Darwin (née Howard)Elizabth Collier Sachaveral PoleSamuel "John" GaltonRichard FletcherSamuel FoxAnne DarwinWilliam Darwin FoxRalph Vaughan WilliamsEarly Wikipedia articleNo early Wiki-articleMarriage—solid lineIntermarriageChildrenEmma WedgwoodJosiah Wedgwood IISusannah WedgwoodWilliam Erasmus DarwinElizabeth DarwinAnne Elizabeth DarwinFrancis DarwinBernard Darwin—golf writerFrances CroftsFrancis CornfordJohn CornfordHorace Basil BarlowAlan BarlowNora DarwinLeonard DarwinHenrietta Emma DarwinHorace DarwinSamuel Tertius GaltonFrancis GaltonGeorge DarwinJacques RaveratGwendoline DarwinCharles Galton DarwinGeoffrey KeynesElizabeth DarwinRichard KeynesQuentin KeynesErasmus Datwin IIFrances Anne ViolettaElizabeth DarwinCharles Darwin (died aged 69William AlveyMartha du PuyCharles Waring DarwinMary Eleanor DarwinErasmus Alvey DarwinCaroline Sarah DarwinRobert & Sarah had three other childrenSarah WedgwoodElizabeth AllenHarriett FletcherEllen Sophia Darwin FoxHensleigh WedgwoodWilliam Darwin Fox had 16 childrenJosiah Wedgwood IIIJosiah and Elizabeth had three other childrenArthur Vaughan WilliamsMargaret WedgwoodAdeline FisherUrsula WoodErasmus & Elizabeth had six other childrenSamuel and Frances had six other childrenFirst generation—use cursor to investigate or button to enlarge2nd generation—use cursor to investigate or button to enlarge3rd generation—use cursor to investigate or button to enlarge4th generation—use cursor to investigate or button to enlarge5th generation—use cursor to investigate or button to enlarge6th generation—use cursor to investigate or button to enlargeUse cursor to investigate or button to enlarge
Darwin–Wedgwood–Galton family tree—use a cursor to investigate

The first generationEdit

Josiah WedgwoodEdit

Josiah Wedgwood (1730–1795)

Josiah Wedgwood (1730–1795) was a noted pottery businessman and a friend of Erasmus Darwin. During 1780, on the death of his long-time business partner Thomas Bentley, Josiah asked Darwin for help in managing the business. As a result of the close association that grew up between the Wedgwood and Darwin families, one of Josiah's daughters later married Erasmus's son Robert. One of the children of that marriage, Charles Darwin, also married a Wedgwood – Emma, Josiah's granddaughter. Robert's inheritance of Josiah's money enabled him to fund Charles Darwin's chosen vocation in natural history that resulted in the inception of Darwin's theory of evolution. Subsequently, Emma's inheritance made the Darwins a wealthy family.

Josiah Wedgwood married Sarah Wedgwood (1734–1815), and they had seven children, including:

Erasmus DarwinEdit

Erasmus Darwin (1731–1802)

Erasmus Darwin (1731–1802) was a physician, botanist and poet from Lichfield, whose lengthy botanical poems gave insights into medicine and natural history, and described an evolutionist theory that anticipated both Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and his grandson Charles. He married twice, first during 1757 to Mary Howard (1740–1770), who died from alcohol-induced liver failure aged 31. She gave birth to:

He then had an extra-marital affair with a Miss Parker, producing two daughters:

  • Susanna Parker (1772–1856)
  • Mary Parker (1774–1859)

He then became smitten with Elizabeth Collier Sacheveral-Pole, who was married to Colonel Sacheveral-Pole and was the natural daughter of the Charles Colyear, 2nd Earl of Portmore. Sacheveral-Pole died soon afterwards, and Erasmus married Elizabeth and they bore an additional seven children:

Samuel "John" GaltonEdit

Samuel "John" Galton FRS (1753–1832) was an arms manufacturer from Birmingham. He married Lucy Barclay (1757–1817), daughter of Robert Barclay Allardice, MP, 5th of Urie. They had the eight children:

  • Mary Anne Galton (1778–1856), married Lambert Schimmelpenninck in 1806
  • Sophia Galton (1782–1863) married Charles Brewin in 1833
  • Samuel Tertius Galton (1783–1844) (whose son Francis Galton was also notable).
  • Theodore Galton (1784–1810)
  • Adele Galton (1784–1869) married John Kaye Booth, dsp.
  • Hubert John Barclay Galton (1789–1864).
  • Ewen Cameron Galton, (1791–1800), died aged 9.
  • John Howard Galton (1794–1862), father of Douglas Strutt Galton.

The second generationEdit

Robert Darwin (1766–1848)Edit

Robert Darwin (1766–1848)

The son of Erasmus Darwin, Robert Darwin was a noted physician from Shrewsbury,[1] whose own income as a physician, together with astute investment of his inherited wealth, enabled him to fund his son Charles Darwin's place on the Voyage of the Beagle and then gave him the private income needed to support Charles' chosen vocation in natural history that led to the inception of Darwin's theory of evolution. He married Susannah Wedgwood, daughter of Josiah Wedgwood (see above), and they had the following children.

Josiah WedgwoodEdit

Josiah Wedgwood (1769–1843)

Josiah Wedgwood (1769–1843) was the son of the first Josiah Wedgwood, and Member of Parliament for Stoke-on-Trent. He married Elizabeth Allen (1764–1846) and they had nine children:[2][3]

Thomas WedgwoodEdit

Thomas Wedgwood (1771–1805). Pioneer in developing photography. Son of Josiah Wedgwood.

Samuel Tertius GaltonEdit

Samuel Tertius Galton married Frances Anne Violetta Darwin, (1783–1874) daughter of Erasmus Darwin, see above. They had three sons and four daughters including:

  • Erasmus Galton (1815–1909), Lord of the Manor of Loxton.
  • Francis Galton (1822–1911) – Inventor, polymath and father of eugenics. He married Louisa Jane Butler (1822–1897) during 1853 but their union was childless.

Sir Francis Sacheverel DarwinEdit

Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin

Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin was the son of Erasmus Darwin and Elizabeth (née Collier), daughter of Charles Colyear, 2nd Earl of Portmore. Francis was an accomplished travel writer, explorer and naturalist and bravely studied the ravages of the plague on Smyrna at great personal risk. He was the only one to return of his friends who went to the East. A physician to George III, he was knighted by George IV.

On 16 December 1815 he married Jane Harriet Ryle (11 December 1794 – 19 April 1866) at St. George, Hanover Square London. They had many children including:

  • Mary Jane Darwin (12 February 1817 – 1872), married Charles Carill-Worsley of Platt Hall, near Manchester, in 1840. (Their daughter, Elizabeth, who married Nicolas Tindal, later Tindal-Carill-Worsley, was the mother of Charles and Ralph Tindal-Carill-Worsley – see under 5th generation).
  • Frances Sarah Darwin (19 July 1822 – 1881), married Gustavus Barton in 1845, widowed 1846 and remarried to Marcus Huish during 1849. She is the stepmother of the art dealer Marcus Bourne Huish.
  • Edward Levett Darwin (12 April 1821 – 23 April 1901), married Harriett Jessopp during 1850. A solicitor in Matlock Bath, Derbyshire, Edward Levett Darwin was the author, using the pseudonym "High Elms", of Gameskeeper's Manual, a guide for tending game on large estates which shows keen observation of the habits of various animals.

The third generationEdit

Charles DarwinEdit

Emma Darwin (née Wedgwood)

The most prominent member of the family, Charles Darwin, proposed the first coherent theory of evolution by means of natural and sexual selection.

Charles Robert Darwin (1809–1882) was a son of Robert Waring Darwin and Susannah Wedgwood. He married Emma Wedgwood, (1808–1896) a daughter of Josiah Wedgwood II and Elizabeth Allen. Charles's mother, Susannah, was a sister to Emma's father, Josiah II. Thus, Charles and Emma were first cousins.

The Darwins had ten children, three of whom died before reaching maturity.

Ancestry of Charles DarwinEdit

Other notables from the same periodEdit

William Darwin FoxEdit

William Darwin Fox (1805–1880)

The Rev. William Darwin Fox (1805–1880) was a second cousin of Charles Darwin and an amateur entomologist, naturalist and palaeontologist. Fox became a lifelong friend of Charles Darwin after their first meeting at Christ's College, Cambridge. He married Harriet Fletcher, who gave him five children, and after her death married Ellen Sophia Woodd, who provided the remainder of his 17 children.

After his graduation from Cambridge during 1829, Fox was appointed as the Vicar of Osmaston and during 1838 became the Rector of Delamere, a living he retained until his retirement during 1873.

The fourth generationEdit

George Howard DarwinEdit

George Howard Darwin (1845–1912) was an astronomer and mathematician. He married Martha (Maud) du Puy of Philadelphia. They had five children:

Francis DarwinEdit

Francis Darwin (1848–1925) was the botanist son of Charles Darwin and Emma Darwin (née Wedgwood). Francis Darwin married Amy Ruck during 1874, who died during 1876 after the birth of their son Bernard Darwin, an author on golf – see below. Francis married Ellen Crofts during September 1883 and they had a daughter Frances Crofts, who married and became known as the poet Frances Cornford (see below). During 1913 he married his third wife Florence Henrietta Darwin (née Fisher); there were no children of this marriage, but he became step-father to Fredegond Shove née Maitland and Ermengard Maitland.

He is buried at the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge,[5] where he is interred in the same grave as his daughter Frances Cornford. His third wife and his brother Sir Horace Darwin and his wife Lady 'Ida' are interred in the same graveyard, as well as his step-daughter Fredegond Shove but not her sister Ermengard Maitland.

Leonard DarwinEdit

Leonard Darwin (1850–1943) was variously an army officer, Member of Parliament and eugenicist who corresponded with Ronald Fisher, thus being the link between the two great evolutionary biologists.

Horace DarwinEdit

Horace Darwin (1851–1928) and Ida Darwin (1854–1946) had the following children:

He is buried at the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge, with his wife.[5] His brother Sir Francis Darwin is interred in the same graveyard.

The fifth generationEdit

Charles Galton DarwinEdit

Charles Galton Darwin 1887–1962 was the son of George Howard Darwin (see above) and was a noted physicist of the age, and Director of the National Physics Laboratory. His son George Pember Darwin (1928–2001) married Angela Huxley, great granddaughter of Thomas Huxley.

Gwen Raverat (née Darwin)Edit

Gwen Raverat (1885–1957) was the daughter of George Howard Darwin and was an artist. She married the French artist Jacques Raverat during 1911 and had daughters Elizabeth Hambro and Sophie Pryor, later Gurney. Her childhood memoir, Period Piece, contains illustrations of and anecdotes about many of the Darwin—Wedgwood clan.

Margaret Keynes (née Darwin)Edit

Margaret Keynes (1890–1974) was the daughter of George Howard Darwin, (see above). She married Geoffrey Keynes, brother of the economist John Maynard Keynes (see Keynes family) and had sons Richard Keynes, Quentin Keynes, Milo Keynes and Stephen Keynes, and a daughter Harriet Frances. Date of birth 22 March 1890.[6] She was the third child, her other siblings are: 1. Gwendolen Mary 27 Aug 1885.[7] 2. Charles Galton 9 Dec 1887.[8] 3. William Robert 22 August 1894.[9]

Bernard DarwinEdit

Bernard Darwin (1876–1961) was a golf writer. He married Elinor Monsell (died 1954) during 1906, and they had a son Robert Vere Darwin (7 May 1910 – 30 January 1974), and daughters Ursula Mommens (20 August 1908 – 30 January 2010), and Nicola Mary Elizabeth Darwin, later Hughes (1916–1976).

Frances Cornford (née Darwin)Edit

Frances Cornford (1886–1960) Poet, daughter of Francis Darwin, see above, known to the family as 'FCC'; she was married to Francis Cornford, known to the family as 'FMC'. She is buried at the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge,[5] where she is in the same grave as her father Sir Francis Darwin. Her late husband, Francis, was cremated at Cambridge Crematorium on 6 January 1943, and his ashes are presumed to be interred in the same grave.

Ralph Vaughan WilliamsEdit

Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872–1958), British composer. His maternal grandmother, Caroline Sarah Darwin, was Charles Darwin's older sister, and his maternal grandfather, Josiah Wedgwood III, was the older brother of Darwin's wife Emma.

Nora Barlow (née Darwin)Edit

Nora Darwin (1885–1989), the daughter of Horace Darwin (see above), married Sir Alan Barlow. She also edited the Autobiography of Charles Darwin (ISBN 0393310698 (hardback) and ISBN 0-393-00487-2 (paperback)). They had the following six children:

Josiah Wedgwood III, 1st Baron WedgwoodEdit

Josiah Wedgwood (1872–1943), great-great-grandson of Josiah Wedgwood I, was a Liberal and Labour MP, and served in the military during the Second Boer War and the First World War. He was granted a peerage during 1942.

Charles Tindal-Carill-WorsleyEdit

Capt Charles Tindal-Carill-Worsley, RN, (died 1921) a great grandson of Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin, served on the Royal Yacht HMY Victoria and Albert (1899) during the reign of King Edward VII, before a successful career in the First World War, where he was commander of HMS Prince George during the Gallipoli Campaign of 1915[11] He was appointed Chevalier of the Legion of Honour by the President of France during 1918.[12]

Ralph Tindal-Carill-WorsleyEdit

Cmdr Ralph Tindal-Carill-Worsley, RN, (1886–1966), brother of Charles, naval officer and bon viveur, served on the Royal Yacht with his brother, before serving in the Battle of Jutland in World War I. He retired from the Royal Navy after the First World War but was recalled during World War II, when he was commandant of a training school for WRENS (members of the Women's Royal Naval Service). He married Kathleen, daughter of Simon Mangan of Dunboyne Castle, Lord Lieutenant of Meath and a first cousin of Brig. General Paul Kenna, VC, and had three children.

Sir Ralph Wedgwood, 1st BaronetEdit

Sir Ralph L. Wedgwood, 1st Baronet CB CMG (2 March 1874 – 5 September 1956), railway executive, son of Clement Wedgwood.

The sixth generationEdit

Erasmus Darwin BarlowEdit

Erasmus Darwin Barlow (1915–2005) was a psychiatrist, physiologist and businessman. Son of Nora Barlow.

Horace BarlowEdit

Horace Barlow (1921–2020) was Professor of Physiological Optics and Physiology, Berkeley, California, US (1964–73); Royal Society Research Professor, Physiological Laboratory, Cambridge (1973–87).

John CornfordEdit

John Cornford (1915–1936), was a poet and member of the International Brigades died during the Spanish Civil War. Son of Francis and Frances Cornford, see above.

Christopher CornfordEdit

Christopher Cornford (1917–1993), was an artist and writer. Son of Francis and Frances Cornford, see above.

Henry Galton DarwinEdit

Henry Galton Darwin (1929–1992) was a lawyer and diplomat. Son of Charles Galton Darwin.[13]

Robin DarwinEdit

Robert Vere "Robin" Darwin (1910–1974) was an artist. He is the son of Bernard Darwin, see above.

Quentin KeynesEdit

Quentin Keynes (1921–2003) was a bibliophile and explorer. Son of Margaret Keynes, née Darwin, see above.

Richard KeynesEdit

Professor Richard Darwin Keynes FRS (1919–2010) was a British physiologist. Son of Margaret Keynes, née Darwin, see above.

Ursula MommensEdit

Ursula Mommens (née Darwin, first married name Trevelyan) (1908–2010) was a well-known potter. Daughter of Bernard Darwin, see above. Her son by Julian Trevelyan is the movie-maker Philip Trevelyan.

Geoffrey Tindal-Carill-WorsleyEdit

Air Commodore Geoffrey Tindal-Carill-Worsley (1908–1996) was a Royal Air Force officer during the Second World War. Nephew of Charles and Ralph Tindal-Carill-Worsley.

Nicolas Tindal-Carill-WorsleyEdit

Group Captain Nicolas Tindal-Carill-Worsley (1911–2006) was a RAF bomber pilot during the Second World War (known as Nicolas Tindal). Son of Ralph Tindal-Carill-Worsley.

Camilla WedgwoodEdit

Camilla Wedgwood (1901–1955), anthropologist, was the daughter of Josiah Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood (see above).

Cicely Veronica (CV) WedgwoodEdit

Cicely Veronica Wedgwood (1910–1997), historian. Daughter of Ralph Wedgwood

The seventh generationEdit

Martin Thomas BarlowEdit

Martin T. Barlow (born 1953) is a mathematician; son of Andrew Dalmahoy Barlow.

Phyllida BarlowEdit

Phyllida Barlow (born 1944) is a sculptor and art academic; daughter of Erasmus Darwin Barlow.

Matthew ChapmanEdit

Matthew Chapman (born 1950), screenwriter, author, grandson of Frances Cornford, see above.

Adam CornfordEdit

Adam Cornford (born 1950), is a poet and essayist. Son of Christopher Cornford, see above.

Chris DarwinEdit

Chris Darwin (born 1961), conservationist and adventurer, son of George Erasmus Darwin, see above, and brother of Sarah Darwin and Robert Darwin, see below.

Emma DarwinEdit

Emma Darwin (born 1964), novelist, granddaughter of Charles Galton Darwin, see above.

Sarah DarwinEdit

Sarah Darwin (born 1964), botanist, daughter of George Erasmus Darwin, see above, and sister of Chris Darwin and Robert Darwin, see above.

Randal KeynesEdit

Randal Keynes (born 1948), conservationist and author, son of Richard Keynes, see above.

Simon KeynesEdit

Simon Keynes (born 1952), Elrington and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse, and Celtic at Cambridge University, son of Richard Keynes, see above, and brother of Randal Keynes, see above.

Hugh MassingberdEdit

Hugh Massingberd (1947–2007) was an obituaries editor for the Daily Telegraph, a journalist and the author of many books on genealogy and architectural history. He was the great grandson of Emily Langton Massingberd, and the great great grandson of Charlotte Langton (née Wedgwood), sister of Emma Darwin (Charles Darwin's wife) and granddaughter of Josiah Wedgwood I.[14][15]

Ruth PadelEdit

Ruth Padel (born 1946), poet, granddaughter of Sir Alan and Lady (Nora) Barlow (née Darwin), see above.

R. Sebastian 'Bas' PeaseEdit

R. Sebastian 'Bas' Pease (1922–2004), physicist, Director of Culham Laboratory for Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion (1968–1981), manager of the British chapter of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, grandson of the fourth Josiah Wedgwood (see above). His sister, Jocelyn Richenda 'Chenda' Gammell Pease (1925–2003), married Andrew Huxley.

Lucy RawlinsonEdit

Lucy Rawlinson (née Pryor) (born 1948), painter (as Lucy Raverat), granddaughter of Gwen Raverat (née Darwin), see above.

Anthony TindalEdit

Managing director of Tindal wine merchant and youngest son of Nicolas Tindal-Carill-Worsley. Father of Harriet, William and Henry Tindal. Lives in Wicklow Ireland.[citation needed]

The eighth generationEdit

Soumaya KeynesEdit

Soumaya Keynes (born 1989), economist and journalist, daughter of Randal Keynes.

Skandar KeynesEdit

Skandar Keynes (born 1991), political advisor and former actor, played Edmund in The Chronicles of Narnia, son of Randal Keynes.

Ralph WedgwoodEdit

Ralph Wedgwood (born 1964), philosopher, great-grandson of Ralph L. Wedgwood.[16]

Eddie PeakeEdit

Eddie Peake (born 1981), contemporary artist, son of Phyllida Barlow.[17]


There was a notable history of intermarriage within the family. During the period being discussed, Josiah Wedgwood married his third cousin Sarah Wedgwood; Charles Darwin married his first cousin Emma Wedgwood; his sister, Caroline Darwin, married Emma's brother (and Caroline's first cousin), Josiah Wedgwood III. There were other instances of cousin marriage as well. Cousin marriage was not uncommon in Britain during the 19th century though why is debated: poorer communications, keeping wealth within the family, more opportunity of evaluating a relative of the opposite sex as a suitable marriage partner (unmarried young women of the upper and upper middle classes were closely chaperoned when meeting men outside the family during the 19th century), more security for the woman as she would not be leaving her family (though legal rights for married women increased during the century, as a rule her property became his and she had little legal recourse if he chose to abuse her).

Coat of armsEdit

These arms were granted to Reginald Darwin, of Fern, Derbyshire, for himself and certain descendants of his father, Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin, and his uncle Robert Waring Darwin (Father of Charles), on 6 March 1890.[18] As Charles Darwin was part of the destination, they have been used in association with him, despite being granted after his death. Something similar is used by Darwin College, Cambridge.

Coat of arms of Reginal Darwin
The arms of Reginald Darwin (1818–1892)[19] and his heirs consist of:
Upon a wreath of the colours, in front of a demi-griffin Vert, holding between the claws an escallop Or, three escallops fesswise Argent.
Argent, on a bend Gules cottised Vert, between two mullets each within an annulet Gules, three escallops Or.
Cave et aude (Beware and dare)

A variant without mullets was being used by the Darwin family long before 1890. Erasmus Darwin used it with the motto E conchis omnia (All things out of shells),[20] reflecting his belief that all life descended from one simple form. Charles' father Robert adopted the same motto, displaying it on his bookplate.[21] Stephen Glover described in 1829 the older variant quartered with the Waring coat of arms (sable, a chevron between three storks' heads erased, argent).[22]

Coat of arms of Erasmus Darwin
A demi-griffin segreant, Vert, holding in his claws an escallop, Or.
Argent, on a bend Gules cottised Vert, three escallop shells, Or.
E conchis omnia (All things out of shells)

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Milner, 1.
  2. ^ Wedgwood, Josiah C. (1908). A History of the Wedgwood Family. London: The St. Catherine Press, Ltd. pp. 188–191.
  3. ^ "Descendants of Josiah Wedgwood I". WikiTree. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  4. ^ Arbuckle, Elisabeth Sanders (1983). Harriet Martineau's Letters to Fanny Wedgwood. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804711463.
  5. ^ a b c A Guide to Churchill College, Cambridge: text by Dr. Mark Goldie, pages 62 and 63 (2009)
  6. ^ "Facsimile". darwin-online.org.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  7. ^ "Facsimile". darwin-online.org.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  8. ^ "Facsimile". darwin-online.org.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  9. ^ "Facsimile". darwin-online.org.uk. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  10. ^ "PADEL - Deaths Announcements - Telegraph Announcements". announcements.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  11. ^ "Letter from C T-C-W to his mother Elizabeth, 8 June 1915, sold by Prestige Philately 13 June 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  12. ^ "No. 30870". The London Gazette. 27 August 1918. p. 10091.
  13. ^ Ian Sinclair (28 September 1992). "Obituary: Henry Darwin". The Independent.
  14. ^ "John Michael Montgomery-Massingberd b. 13 Dec 1913 d. 30 Dec 2004 Bristol, Gloucestershire, England: MontyHistNotes".
  15. ^ "Hugh Massingberd" (obituary). The Daily Telegraph. 27 December 2007.
  16. ^ "Ralph Wedgwood: Pronunciation of "Ralph"".
  17. ^ "Eddie Peake takes centre stage for new performance show at London's White Cube".
  18. ^ Wagner, Anthony (1939), Historic Heraldry of Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 98
  19. ^ Macauly, Gregor (2009). "The Arms of Charles Darwin". The New Zealand Armorist: The Journal of the Heraldry Society of New Zealand. 112 (Spring 2009): 12–14.
  20. ^ Chippendale armorial bookplate for Erasmus Darwin. British Museum
  21. ^ Wiker, Benjamin. The Darwin Myth: The Life and Lies Charles Darwin. Simon and Schuster, 2009, p. 13
  22. ^ Glover, Stephen. The History, Gazetteer, and Directory of the County of Derby, Part II. Derby: Henry Mozley & Son, 1829, p. 154


External linksEdit