Dardanus (son of Zeus)

In Greek mythology, Dardanus (/ˈdɑːrdənəs/; Ancient Greek: Δάρδανος,[1] Dardanos) was the founder of the city of Dardanus at the foot of Mount Ida in the Troad.

Dardanus
Eponymous king of Dardania
Member of the Dardanian Royal Family
PredecessorTeucer
SuccessorErichthonius or Ilus I
Abode(1) Arcadia, then Samothrace and Troad or
(2) Hesperia (or Italy), then Troad
Personal information
Parents(1) Zeus and Electra
(2) Corythus and Electra
Siblings(1) & (2) Iasion (or Iasus or Eetion), Harmonia and (1) Emathion
Consort(i) Chryse
(ii) Olizone
(iii) Batea or Arisbe
Children(i) Idaeus and Deimas
(ii) & (iii) Erichthonius
(iii) Ilus I, Idaea and Zacynthus

FamilyEdit

Dardanus was a son of Zeus and the Pleiad Electra,[2] daughter of Atlas but one author claims that his real father was the Corythus, an Italian king.[3] He was the brother of Iasion and sometimes of Harmonia and Emathion.

MythologyEdit

Dionysius of Halicarnassus (1.61–62) states that Dardanus' original home was in Arcadia, where Dardanus and his elder brother Iasus (elsewhere more commonly called Iasion) reigned as kings following Atlas. Dardanus married Chryse, daughter of Pallas,[4] by whom he fathered two sons: Idaeus and Deimas. When a great flood occurred, the survivors, who were living on mountains that had now become islands, split into two groups: one group remained and took Deimas as king while the other sailed away, eventually settling in the island of Samothrace. There Iasus (Iasion) was slain by Zeus for lying with Demeter.[5] Dardanus and his people found the land poor and so most of them set sail for Asia Minor.

A different account in Virgil's Aeneid (3.163f) has Aeneas in a dream learn from his ancestral Penates that "Dardanus and Father Iasius" and the Penates themselves originally came from Hesperia, afterwards renamed as Italy. This tradition holds that Dardanus was a Tyrrhenian prince, and that his mother Electra was married to Corythus, king of Tarquinia.[6]

Other accounts make no mention of Arcadia or Hesperia, though they sometimes mention a flood and speak of Dardanus sailing on a hide-raft (as part of the flood story?) from Samothrace to the Troad near Abydos. All accounts agree that Dardanus came to the Troad from Samothrace[5] and was there welcomed by King Teucer. Dardanus married Batea the daughter of Teucer. (Dionysius mentions that Dardanus' first wife Chryse had died.) Dardanus received land on Mount Ida from his father-in-law. There Dardanus founded the city of Dardanus which became the capital of his kingdom.[5] He later founded the city of Thymbra in honor of his friend Thymbraeus, who is said to have been killed by Dardanus. Dardanus waged war successfully against his neighbors, especially distinguishing himself against the Paphlagonians and thereby extending the boundaries of his kingdom with considerable acquisitions.

 
The strait of the Dardanelles (yellow) takes its name from Dardanus.

Dardanus' children by Batea were Ilus, Erichthonius, Idaea[according to whom?] and Zacynthus.[7] Ilus died before his father. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Zacynthus was the first settler on the island afterwards called Zacynthus.[8] Dardanus' sons by Chryse, his first wife, were Idaeus and Dimas. Dionysius says (1.61.4) that Dimas and Idaeus founded colonies in Asia Minor. Idaeus gave his name to the Idaean mountains, that is Mount Ida, where he built a temple to the Mother of the Gods (Cybele) and instituted mysteries and ceremonies still observed in Phrygia in Dionysius's time. According to Dictys Cretensis, his wife was called Olizone, daughter of Phineus and became the mother of Erichthonius.[9] In other accounts, the wife of Dardanus was called Arisbe, daughter of King Teucer of Crete[10] or King Macareus of Lesbos.[11]

Dardanus reigned for 64 or 65 years and was succeeded by his son Erichthonius or in some accounts, Ilus.

Cultural depictionsEdit

There are operas on the subject of Dardanus by Jean-Philippe Rameau (1739), Carl Stamitz (1770) and Antonio Sacchini (1784).

Family treeEdit

OceanusTethys
AtlasPleioneScamanderIdaeaSimoeis
Zeus/JupiterElectraTeucer
DardanusBatea
IlusErichthoniusAstyoche
CallirrhoeTros
IlusGanymedeAssaracusHieromneme
LaomedonThemisteCapys
PriamAnchisesAphrodite/VenusLatinus
Creusa of TroyAeneasLavinia
AscaniusSilvius
Aeneas Silvius
Latinus Silvius
Alba
Atys
Capys
Capetus
Tiberinus Silvius
Agrippa
Romulus Silvius
Aventinus
Procas
NumitorAmulius
Ares/MarsRhea Silvia/Ilia
HersiliaRomulusRemus

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The name is traditionally associated with δαρδάπτω (dardapto) "to wear, to slay, to burn up"
  2. ^ Servius, Commentary on Virgil's Aeneid 3.167, 7.207, 10.719
  3. ^ Lactantius, Divine Institutes 1.23 "But according to some authorities, Dardanus and Iasius were sons of Coritus, not of Jupiter. For if it had been so, Jupiter could not have formed that unchaste connection with Ganymede, his own descendant."
  4. ^ Graves, Robert. The Greek Myths, ISBN 0-14-017199-1, p.358
  5. ^ a b c Pseudo-Scymnos, Circuit de la terre 535 ff.
  6. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 7.195-242; 8. 596 ss.; 9. 10; Servio ad Vergilium, Aeneidos 9.10
  7. ^ Pausanias, 8.24.3
  8. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Antiquitates Romanae 1.50.3.
  9. ^ Dictys Cretensis, Trojan War Chronicle 3.5 & 4.22
  10. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 1298
  11. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Arisbe

ReferencesEdit