Coordinates: 31°02′10″N 30°28′10″E / 31.03611°N 30.46944°E / 31.03611; 30.46944

Damanhur (Arabic: دمنهور Damanhūr, IPA: [dɑmɑnˈhuːɾ]; Egyptian: Dmỉ-n-Ḥr.w; Coptic: ⲡϯⲙⲓⲛ̀ϩⲱⲣ Ptīminhōr; pronounced [ptəmənhoːr]; Ancient Greek: Ἑρμοῦ πόλις μικρά Hermopolis Mikra) is a city in Lower Egypt, and the capital of the Beheira Governorate. It is located 160 km (99 mi) northwest of Cairo, and 70 km (43 mi) E.S.E. of Alexandria, in the middle of the western Nile Delta.

Damanhur
دمنهور
Damnhur Opera House.jpg
مسجد الأتوبيس - دمنهور.jpg
Damnhur Opera House From inside.jpg
ميدان جلال قريطم بمدينة دمنهور.jpg
Damanhour at Night.jpg
دار أوبرا دمنهور.jpg
Clockwise from top:
Damanhur Opera House, Nasser Mosque, Inside Opera House, Galal Qoraytem square, Damanhur at Night, Damanhur Opera House
Flag of Damanhur
Official seal of Damanhur
Damanhur is located in Egypt
Damanhur
Damanhur
Location within Egypt
Coordinates: 31°02′26″N 30°28′12″E / 31.04056°N 30.47000°E / 31.04056; 30.47000
Country Egypt
GovernorateBeheira
Elevation
18 m (59 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total242,700
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
Area code(+20) 45

EtymologyEdit

D46W19M17M17O49W24G5Z1
or
D46
Aa15
W19M17M17X1
O49
S3G6X1
O49
Țemāi en Ḥeru[1]
Egyptian hieroglyphs

Damanhur was known in the ancient Egyptian language as The City of (the god) Horus,[2] on the grounds that it was a center for the worship of this god. It was also known by other names: in the Egyptian texts, "Behdet";[3] in the Greek texts "Hermou Polis Mikra" (the lesser city of Hermes), translated to Latin by the Romans as "Hermopolis Parva"; the name "Obollenoboles" (or Apollonopolis) associated it with the Greek god Apollo, and it was also called "Tel Ballamon". Now it is known by its oldest name, which was rendered in Bohairic Coptic: Ⲡⲓϯⲙⲓⲛ̀ϩⲱⲣ or Ⲡⲧⲓⲙⲉⲛϩⲱⲣ,[4] and thus rendered in Arabic as "Damanhur" following the Islamic conquest.

HistoryEdit

In ancient Egypt, the city was the capital of Lower Egypt's 7th Nome of A-ment. It stood on the banks of a canal which connected the lake Mareotis with the Canopic or most westerly arm of the Nile.[5] The city was dedicated to the Ancient Egyptian god Horus. In Greek and Roman times, it was called Hermopolis Mikra or Hermopolis Parva, which would also give it an association with Hermes, the Egyptian Thoth.[6] As Hermopolis, the city attracted the notice of numerous ancient geographers, including Stephanus of Byzantium s. v., Strabo (xvii. p. 802), Ptolemy (iv. 5. § 46), and the author of the Antonine Itinerary (p. 154). It is a Roman Catholic titular see.

It was first made a provincial capital under Fatimid rule in 11th century, and in the Middle Ages it prospered as a caravan town on the post road from Cairo to Alexandria. It was severely damaged in 1302 by an earthquake, but in the late 14th century the Mamluk caliph Barquq restored its fortifications to protect the city from Bedouins.

In 1799, the city revolted against the French, who cruelly crushed the rebels, killing 1,500.

In 1986, the population of Damanhur was 188,939. The richly cultivated Beheira province gives rise to mainly agricultural industries which include cotton ginning, potato processing, and date picking. It also has a market for cotton and rice.

Notable peopleEdit

ClimateEdit

Being located close to the Nile Delta and the northern coast of Egypt, that give Damanhur a hot desert climate (Köppen: BWh), moderated by blowing winds coming from the Mediterranean Sea, typical to the coast. The city gets average precipitation during winter, and rare rain during other seasons. Hail and frost are not unknown specifically during winter.

Climate data for Damanhur, Egypt
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 18.3
(64.9)
19.1
(66.4)
21.7
(71.1)
25.6
(78.1)
29.4
(84.9)
31.2
(88.2)
32.0
(89.6)
32.3
(90.1)
30.8
(87.4)
29.1
(84.4)
24.8
(76.6)
20.3
(68.5)
26.2
(79.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.0
(55.4)
13.6
(56.5)
15.8
(60.4)
19.0
(66.2)
22.7
(72.9)
25.0
(77.0)
26.2
(79.2)
26.4
(79.5)
25.1
(77.2)
23.2
(73.8)
19.4
(66.9)
15.0
(59.0)
20.4
(68.7)
Average low °C (°F) 7.8
(46.0)
8.2
(46.8)
9.9
(49.8)
12.4
(54.3)
16.0
(60.8)
18.9
(66.0)
20.5
(68.9)
20.6
(69.1)
19.4
(66.9)
17.3
(63.1)
14.0
(57.2)
9.7
(49.5)
14.6
(58.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 25
(1.0)
21
(0.8)
9
(0.4)
4
(0.2)
3
(0.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
5
(0.2)
13
(0.5)
22
(0.9)
102
(4.1)
Source: Climate-Data.org[7]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Wallis Budge, E. A. (1920). An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary: with an index of English words, king list and geological list with indexes, list of hieroglyphic characters, coptic and semitic alphabets, etc. Vol II. John Murray. p. 1062.
  2. ^ Peter, Clarke (2004). Encyclopedia of New Religious Movements. Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 9781134499700.
  3. ^ Iskander, Zaky; Badawy, Alexander (1965). Brief History of Ancient Egypt. Madkour Press. p. 22.
  4. ^ Gardiner, Alan (December 1, 1944). "Horus the Beḥdetite". The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 30 (1): 23–60. doi:10.1177/030751334403000104. S2CID 192372143.
  5. ^ Champollion, L'Egypte, vol. ii. p. 249
  6. ^ "Damanhūr" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 7 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 783.
  7. ^ "Climate: Damanhur - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 13 August 2013.

External linksEdit