Cyclohexanone is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)5CO. The molecule consists of six-carbon cyclic molecule with a ketone functional group. This colorless oil has an odor reminiscent of that of acetone. Over time, samples of cyclohexanone assume a yellow color. Cyclohexanone is slightly soluble in water and miscible with common organic solvents. Billions of kilograms are produced annually, mainly as a precursor to nylon.
|Preferred IUPAC name
oxocyclohexane, pimelic ketone, ketohexamethylene, cyclohexyl ketone, ketocyclohexane, hexanon, Hydrol-O, Sextone, K, Anone
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||98.15 g/mol|
|Odor||peppermint or acetone-like|
|Density||0.9478 g/mL, liquid|
|Melting point||−47 °C (−53 °F; 226 K)|
|Boiling point||155.65 °C (312.17 °F; 428.80 K)|
|8.6 g/100 mL (20 °C)|
|Solubility in all organic solvents||Miscible|
|Vapor pressure||5 mmHg (20°C)|
Refractive index (nD)
|Viscosity||2.02 cP at 25 °C|
Std enthalpy of
|−270.7 kJ mol−1|
Std enthalpy of
|GHS Signal word||Danger|
|H226, H302, H312, H332, H315, H318|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Flash point||44 °C (111 °F; 317 K)|
|420 °C (788 °F; 693 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LC50 (median concentration)
|8000 ppm (rat, 4 hr)|
LCLo (lowest published)
|4706 ppm (mouse, 1.5 hr)|
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 50 ppm (200 mg/m3)|
|TWA 25 ppm (100 mg/m3) [skin]|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
- C6H12 + O2 → (CH2)5CO + H2O
This process co-forms cyclohexanol, and this mixture, called "KA Oil" for ketone-alcohol oil, is the main feedstock for the production of adipic acid. The oxidation involves radicals and the intermediacy of the hydroperoxide C6H11O2H. In some cases, purified cyclohexanol, obtained by hydration of cyclohexene, is the precursor. Alternatively, cyclohexanone can be produced by the partial hydrogenation of phenol:
- C6H5OH + 2 H2 → (CH2)5CO
This process can also be adjusted to favor the formation of cyclohexanol.
ExxonMobil developed a process in which benzene is hydroalkylated to cyclohexylbenzene. This latter product is oxidized to a hydroperoxide and then cleaved to phenol and cyclohexanone. Therefore, this newer process without producing the acetone by-product appears attractive and is similar to the Cumene process as a hydroperoxide is formed and then decomposed to yield two key products.
Cyclohexanone can be prepared from cyclohexanol by oxidation with chromium trioxide (Jones oxidation). An alternative method utilizes the safer and more readily available oxidant sodium hypochlorite.
The great majority of cyclohexanone is consumed in the production of precursors to Nylon 6,6 and Nylon 6. About half of the world's supply is converted to adipic acid, one of two precursors for nylon 6,6. For this application, the KA oil (see above) is oxidized with nitric acid. The other half of the cyclohexanone supply is converted to cyclohexanone oxime. In the presence of sulfuric acid catalyst, the oxime rearranges to caprolactam, a precursor to nylon 6:
In addition to the large scale reactions conducted in service of the polymer industry, many reactions have been developed for cyclohexanone. In the presence of light, it undergoes alpha-chlorination to give 2-chlorocyclohexanone. It forms a trimethylsilylenol ether upon treatment with trimethylsilylchloride in the presence of base. It also forms an enamine with pyrolidine.
- International Chemical Safety Card 0425
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0166". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Data extract from Landolt-Börnstein IV/25: Viscosity of Pure Organic Liquids and Binary Liquid Mixtures
- Sigma-Aldrich - Cyclohexanone
- Sigma-Aldrich Co., Cyclohexanone. Retrieved on 2017-11-20.
- "Cyclohexanone". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Michael T. Musser "Cyclohexanol and Cyclohexanone" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005.doi:10.1002/14356007.a08_217
- Plotkin, Jeffrey S. (2016-03-21). "What's New in Phenol Production?". American Chemical Society. Archived from the original on 2019-10-27. Retrieved 2019-10-27.
- "Phenol -- The essential chemical industry online". 2017-01-11. Retrieved 2019-10-27.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-07-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- M. S. Newman, M. D. Farbman, H. Hipsher (1945). "2-chlorocyclohexanone". Org. Synth. 25: 22. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.025.0022.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Valsamma Varghese, Manasi Saha, Kenneth M. Nicholas (1989). "Alkylations Using Hexacarbonyl(Propargylium)dicobalt Salts: 2-(1-methyl-2-propynyl)cyclohexanone". Org. Synth. 67: 141. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.067.0141.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- R. B. Woodward, I. J. Pachter, M. L. Scheinbaum (1974). "2,2-(Trimethylenedithio)cyclohexanone". Org. Synth. 54: 39. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.054.0039.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Shulgin, A. T.; MacLean, D. E. (25 September 2008). "Illicit Synthesis of Phencyclidine (PCP) and Several of Its Analogs". Clinical Toxicology. 9 (4): 553–560. doi:10.3109/15563657608988157.