Cyclohexanol is the organic compound with the formula HOCH(CH2)5. The molecule is related to cyclohexane by replacement of one hydrogen atom by a hydroxyl group. This compound exists as a deliquescent colorless solid with a camphor-like odor, which, when very pure, melts near room temperature. Billions of kilograms are produced annually, mainly as a precursor to nylon.
|Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||100.158 g/mol|
|Appearance||Colorless, viscous liquid.|
|Density||0.9624 g/mL, liquid|
|Melting point||25.93 °C (78.67 °F; 299.08 K)|
|Boiling point||161.84 °C (323.31 °F; 434.99 K)|
|3.60 g/100 mL (20 °C) |
4.3 g/100 mL (30 °C)
|Solubility||soluble in ethanol, ethyl ether, acetone, chloroform |
miscible with ethyl acetate, linseed oil, benzene
|Vapor pressure||1 mmHg (20°C)|
|4.40 x 10−6 atm-cu m/mol|
Refractive index (nD)
|Viscosity||41.07 mPa·s (30 °C)|
|Main hazards||Flammable, skin irritant|
Reacts violently with oxidizing agents
|Safety data sheet||MSDS for cyclohexanol|
|GHS Signal word||Warning|
|H302, H315, H332, H335|
|P261, P264, P270, P271, P280, P301+312, P302+352, P304+312, P304+340, P312, P321, P330, P332+313, P362, P403+233, P405, P501|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Flash point||67 °C (153 °F; 340 K)|
|300 °C (572 °F; 573 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|2060 mg/kg (oral, rat)|
2200-2600 mg/kg (oral, rabbit)
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 50 ppm (200 mg/m3)|
|TWA 50 ppm (200 mg/m3)|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
- C6H12 + 1/2 O2 → C6H11OH
This process co-forms cyclohexanone, and this mixture ("KA oil" for ketone-alcohol oil) is the main feedstock for the production of adipic acid. The oxidation involves radicals and the intermediacy of the hydroperoxide C6H11O2H. Alternatively, cyclohexanol can be produced by the hydrogenation of phenol:
- C6H5OH + 3 H2 → C6H11OH
This process can also be adjusted to favor the formation of cyclohexanone.
Cyclohexanol undergoes the main reactions expected for a secondary alcohol. Oxidation gives cyclohexanone, which is converted on a large scale in industry to the oxime, a precursor to caprolactam. As a laboratory exercise, this oxidation can be effected with chromic acid. Esterification affords the commercially useful derivatives dicyclohexyladipate and dicyclohexylphthalate, which are used as plasticizers. Heating in the presence of acid catalysts converts cyclohexanol to cyclohexene.
Cyclohexanol has at least two solid phases. One of them is a plastic crystal.
Cyclohexanol is somewhat toxic: the TLV for the vapor for 8 h is 50 ppm. The IDLH concentration is set at 400 ppm, based on studies on the acute oral toxicity in animals. Few studies have been done on its carcinogenicity, but one study on rats found it to have co-carcinogenic effects.
- Merck Index, 11th Edition, 2731.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0165". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- "Cyclohexanol". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
- Michael Tuttle Musser "Cyclohexanol and Cyclohexanone" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005.
- CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
-  Lucrecia Márquez-Rosado, Cristina Trejo-Solís 2, María del Pilar Cabrales-Romero, Evelia Arce-Popoca, Adolfo Sierra-Santoyo, Leticia Alemán-Lazarini, Samia Fatel-Fazenda, Claudia E. Carrasco-Legleu, Saúl Villa-Treviño, "Co-carcinogenic effect of cyclohexanol on the development of preneoplastic lesions in a rat hepatocarcinogenesis model", Molecular Carcinogenesis, Vol. 46, No. 7, Pages 524 - 533, March 2007.