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Mangalore (/ˈmæŋɡəlɔːr/ (About this soundlisten); Tulu: Kudla, ಕುಡ್ಲ; Kannada: ಮಂಗಳೂರು, Mangalūru; Konkani: Kodial, ಕೊಡಿಯಾಲ್; Beary: Maikala, ಮೈಕಾಲ) is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. A resident of Mangalore is known as a Mangalorean in English, Kudladakulu in Tulu, Kodyalkar or Mangalorekar in Konkani Language and Manglurnavaru in Kannada, Maikaaltanga in Beary bashe.

Contents

MulticulturalismEdit

Tuluva CultureEdit

Yakshagana is a night-long dance and drama performance practised by Tuluvas with great fanfare.[1][2] Piliyesa is a unique form of folk dance in the region fascinating the young and the old alike, which is performed during Marnemi (as Dussara is called in Tulu) and Krishna Janmashtami.[3] Karadi Vesha (Bear Dance) is one more popular dance performed during Dasara in Mangalore.[4]Bhuta Kola or spirit worship, which is usually done at night is practised by Tuluvas. Kambala or buffalo race is conducted in water filled paddy fields. Korikatta (Cockfight) is another favourite sport for the people. An ancient ritual associated with the ‘daivasthanams’ (temples) in rural areas, Hindu kozhi kettu,[5] a religious and spiritual cockfight, is held at the temples and also allowed if organised as part of religious or cultural events.[6] Nagaradhane or Snake worship is practised in the Tulu Nadu by Tuluvas according to the popular belief of the Naga Devatha to go underground and guard the species on the top.[7]

Konkani CultureEdit

 
World Konkani Centre, Mangalore

There are about 22 ethnic Konkani communities live in Mangalore[8] including Goud Saraswat Brahmin, Mangalorean Catholics, Daivadnyas, Kudmi, Kharvi, Gudigar, Navayats etc. The communities speak dialects of Konkani Language. Religious Festivals like Car Festivals of various Konkani Temples, Shigmo of Kudmi Community, Santhmarie of Catholics keep alive Konkani Cultural ethos.

The World Konkani Centre, built on a 3 Acre plot called Konkani Gaon (Konkani Village) at Shakti Nagar, Mangalore was inaugurated on 17 January 2009[9] "to serve as a nodal agency for the preservation and overall development of Konkani language, art and culture involving all the Konkani people the world over."

InfrastructureEdit

 
The Jyothi Talkies is a popular cinema theatre in Mangalore
 
A typical Yakshagana artist

The Srimanthi Bai Museum, which is located at Bejai, is the only museum of Mangalore.[10] The Bibliophile's Paradise, a hi-tech public library run by the Corporation Bank, is located at Mannagudda.[11] The Mangala Stadium, which is the only full-fledged stadium in Dakshina Kannada, is located in Mangalore.[12]

PracticesEdit

The Yakshagana is a night-long dance and drama performance practiced in Mangalore.[13][14] The Pilivesha (Tiger dance) is a folk dance unique to this area, which is performed during Dasara and Krishna Janmashtami.[15] Karadi Vesha (Bear Dance) is performed during Dasara in Mangalore.[16]Bhuta Kola or spirit worship, is practised here. Kambala or buffalo race is conducted in water filled paddy fields. Korikatta (Cockfight) is another favourite sport for the people. To its supporters, cockfight, an ancient sport involving a fight between specially reared fowls held at the temples precincts in northern parts of Kasaragod, is not a blood sport but a feature of the rich cultural heritage of Tulunadu and an ancient ritual associated with the ‘daivasthanams’ (temples) here.[5]Nagaradhane or Snake worship is practised in the city according to the popular belief of the Naga Devatha to go underground and guard the species on the top.[17]

Pad'danas (Oral Epics) which are ballad-like folk epics narrated in Tulu are sung by the community of impersonators together with the rhythmic beats.[4] Some of the popular Beary songs are kolkai (sung during the play of kolata), unjal pat (sung while putting a child to cradle), moilanji pat and oppune pat (sung at weddings).[18] The Eucharistic Procession is an annual Catholic religious procession led on the first Sunday of the New Year of the Gregorian calendar.[4]

FestivalsEdit

 
Gokarnanatheshwara Temple during Navaratri

Mangalore Dasara is considered as one of the biggest festival in Mangalore and stands second place after Mysore Dasara in state of Karnataka. The Ganesh Chaturthi festival is celebrated every year by erecting statues, worshipping them and immersing them in water bodies. Kodial Theru or Mangaluru Rathotsava (Mangalore Car Festival) is one of the major festivals of the GSB community, which celebrates the car festival of the Sri Venkatramana Temple.[19] Monti Fest is one of the major festivals of the Mangalorean Catholic community, celebrating the Nativity feast and the blessing of new crops.[20] The Jain Milan, a committee of the Jain families of Mangalore, organise the Jain Food Festival annually with a view to bring together all the members of the Jain community.[21] People of all faiths participate in the Mosaru Kudike, which is a part of the celebrations to mark the Krishna Janmashtami festival.[22] Annual festivals are promoted during summer each year, to promote Karavali Utsav and Kudlostava which encourages the local cultural events. In 2006, the Tulu film festival was organized in Mangalore.[23]

CuisineEdit

 
Lobster neeruli, a local delicacy from the coastal city of Mangalore, where seafood is popular.[24]
 
Neer dosa, a variant of dosa is native to Mangalore

Mangalorean cuisine is largely influenced by South Indian cuisine. Mangalorean curry uses a lot of coconut and curry leaves. Ginger, garlic and chili is also used in curry. Mangalorean fish curry is known for its taste in the whole of Canara. Dishes of the Tulu community include Kori Rotti, Kori Gassi,Bangude Pulimunchi, Beeja-Manoli Upkari, Neer dosa, Chicken Ghee Roast,Chicken Sukka,Boothai Gasi, Kadabu,Masala Dosa and Patrode. The Konkani community has its specialities that include Daali thoy, beebe-upkari (cashew based), val val, avnas ambe sasam, Kadgi chakko. The Sanna-Dukra Maas (Sanna – idli fluffed with toddy or yeast; Dukra Maas – Pork) of the Mangalorean Catholics and the Mutton Biryani of the Mangalorean Muslims are well-known dishes. An assortment of pickles like happala, sandige and puli munchi are unique to Mangalore. Khali (toddy), a country liquor prepared from the coconut flower's sap is a well-known liquor of Mangalore.[4] The vegetarian cuisine is same as Udupi cuisine. Since Mangalore is a coastal town, Fish forms the staple diet of most people.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Yakshagana". SZCC, Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original on 17 August 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2007. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  2. ^ Plunkett, Richard (2001). South India. Lonely Planet. p. 53. ISBN 1-86450-161-8.
  3. ^ Pinto, Stanley G (26 October 2001). "Human `tigers' face threat to health". Times of India. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
  4. ^ a b c d Stephen D'Souza. "What's in a Name?". daijiworld.com. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  5. ^ a b "The Hindu". thehindu.co.in. 10 January 2008.
  6. ^ "The Hindu". thehindu.co.in. 8 September 2011.
  7. ^ "Nagarapanchami Naadige Doddadu". Mangalorean.Com. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  8. ^ Suvarna Karnatakanthlya Konkani Lok; Fr. Richard Rego
  9. ^ http://www.daijiworld.com/news/news_disp.asp?n_id=55810
  10. ^ "Srimanthi Bai Museum is in a shambles". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  11. ^ Raviprasad Kamila (1 April 2006). "It's a treasure of books". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  12. ^ "Minister keen on improving sports infrastructure". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 7 August 2006. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
  13. ^ "Yakshagana". SZCC, Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original on 17 August 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2007. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  14. ^ Plunkett, Richard (2001). South India. Lonely Planet. p. 53. ISBN 1-86450-161-8.
  15. ^ Pinto, Stanley G (26 October 2001). "Human `tigers' face threat to health". Times of India. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
  16. ^ Stephen D'Souza. "What's in a Name?". daijiworld.com. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  17. ^ "Nagarapanchami Naadige Doddadu". Mangalorean.Com. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  18. ^ "Beary Sahitya Academy set up". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 13 October 2007. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  19. ^ "Shri Venkataramana Temple (Car Street, Mangalore)". OurKarnataka.Com,Inc. Retrieved 20 March 2008.
  20. ^ John B. Monteiro. "Monti Fest Originated at Farangipet – 240 Years Ago!". daijiworld.com. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  21. ^ Amrita Nayak (24 November 2007). "Food for thought". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  22. ^ "`Mosaru Kudike' brings in communal harmony". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 28 August 2005. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  23. ^ "Tulu film festival". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 23 February 2006. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  24. ^ http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/mp/2005/10/15/stories/2005101503560400.htm