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The coat of arms of Norway, with the royal crown displayed atop the escutcheon

A crown is often an emblem of a sovereign state, usually a monarchy (see The Crown), but also used by some republics.

A specific type of crown (or coronet for the British peerage) is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium.

Crowns are also often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities (or their representation such as a statue) or by their representatives, e.g. the Black Crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees.

A crown can be a charge in a coat of arms, or set atop the shield to signify the status of its owner, as with the coat of arms of Norway.

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Physical and heraldic crownsEdit

Oftentimes, the crown commonly depicted and used in heraldry differs significantly from any specific physical crown that may be used by a monarchy.

As a display of rankEdit

If the bearer of a coat of arms has the title of baron or higher (or hereditary knight in some countries), he or she may display a coronet of rank above the shield, usually below the helm in British heraldry, and often above the crest (if any) in Continental heraldry.

In this case, the appearance of the crown or coronet follows a strict set of rules. A royal coat of arms may display a royal crown, such as that of Norway. A princely coat of arms may display a princely crown, and so on.

Naval, civic, mural and similar crownsEdit

A mural crown is commonly displayed on coats of arms of towns and some republics. Other republics may use a so-called people's crown or omit the use of a crown altogether. The heraldic forms of crowns are often inspired by the physical appearance of the respective country's actual royal or princely crowns.

Ships and other units of some navies have a naval crown, composed of the sails and sterns of ships, above the shield of their coats of arms. Squadrons of some air forces have an astral crown, composed of wings and stars. There is also the Eastern crown, made up of spikes, and when each spike is topped with a star, it becomes a celestial crown.[1]

Whereas most county councils in England use mural crowns, there is a special type of crown that was used by Scottish county councils. It was composed of spikes, was normally shown vert (green) and had golden wheat sheaves between the spikes.[2] Today, most of the Scottish unitary authorities still use this "wheat sheaf crown", but it is now the usual gold.

Commonwealth usageEdit

 
The coat of arms of the Barons Hawke displays a baronial coronet

In formal English, the word crown is reserved for the crown of a monarch, whereas the word coronet is used for all other crowns used by members of the British royal family and peers of the realm.

In the British peerage, the design of a coronet shows the rank of its owner, as in German, French and various other heraldic traditions. The coronet of a duke has eight strawberry leaves, that of a marquess has four strawberry leaves and four silver balls (known as "pearls", but not actually pearls), that of an earl has eight strawberry leaves and eight "pearls" raised on stalks, that of a viscount has sixteen "pearls", and that of a peerage baron or (in Scotland) lord of parliament has six "pearls". Between the 1930s and 2004, feudal barons in the baronage of Scotland were granted a chapeau or cap of maintenance as a rank insignia.[citation needed] This is placed between the shield and helmet in the same manner as a peer's coronet. Since a person entitled to heraldic headgear customarily displays it above the shield and below the helm and crest, this can provide a useful clue as to the owner of a given coat of arms.

Members of the British royal family have coronets on their coats of arms, and they may wear physical versions at coronations. They are according to regulations made by King Charles II in 1661, shortly after his return from exile in France (getting a taste for its lavish court style; Louis XIV started monumental work at Versailles that year) and Restoration, and they vary depending upon the holder's relationship to the monarch. Occasionally, additional royal warrants vary the designs for individuals.

In Canadian heraldry, special coronets are used to designate descent from United Empire Loyalists. A military coronet signifies ancestors who served in Loyalist regiments during the American Revolution, while a civil coronet is used by all others. The loyalist coronets are used only in heraldry, never worn.

 
King
St Edward's Crown
 
King
Crown of Scotland
 
King
Imperial/Tudor Crown
 
Emperor
Imperial Crown of India
 
Heir Apparent
 
Prince or Princess
(child of a Sovereign)
 
Prince or Princess
(child of Heir Apparent)
 
Prince or Princess
(child of other son of Sovereign)
 
Child of daughter of Sovereign, if styled Highness[3]
 
Duke
 
Marquess
 
Earl
 
Viscount
 
Peerage Baron/Lord of Parliament (Scotland)
 
Feudal Baron (Scotland)
 
Loyalist military coronet (Canada)
 
Loyalist civil coronet (Canada)

[4]

Continental usagesEdit

Precisely because there are many traditions and more variation within some of these, there are a plethora of continental coronet types. Indeed, there are also some coronets for positions that do not exist, or do not entitle use of a coronet, in the Commonwealth tradition.

Such a case in French heraldry of the Ancien Régime, where coronets of rank did not come into use before the 16th century, is the vidame, whose coronet (illustrated) is a metal circle mounted with three visible crosses. (No physical headgear of this type is known.)

Helmets are often substitutes for coronets, and some coronets are worn only on a helmet.

AndorraEdit

  Co-Princes

BulgariaEdit

  Tsar   Tsaritsa   Prince   Older Princesses   Younger Princesses

FranceEdit

  Capital   Department Capital[a]   Commune[a]

Ancien RégimeEdit

  King (after the 1500s)   Heir to the throne (Dauphin)  Children of the sovereign
(fils de France )
  Prince of the Blood
  Duke and Peer of France   Duke   Marquis and Peer of France   Marquis
  Count and Peer of France   Count   Count (older)   Viscount
  Vidame   Baron   Knight's crown   Knight's tortillon

Napoleonic EmpireEdit

 
Emperor
(1st Empire)
 
Emperor
(2nd Empire)
 
Sovereign
Prince
  Prince   Duke
  Count   Baron   Knight  
Bonnet
d'honneur

July MonarchyEdit

  King of the
French

GeorgiaEdit

  Georgian Royal Crown, also known as the "Iberian Crown"

German-speaking countriesEdit

Holy Roman EmpireEdit

  Older Imperial Crown   Newer Imperial Crown   Oldest Crown of the King of the Romans   Older Crown of the King of the Romans
  Newer Crown of the King of the Romans   Crown of the King of Bohemia   Archducal hat   Oldest Electoral hat
  Older Electoral hat   New Electoral hat & new Ducal hat   Ducal hat of Styria   Ducal crown
  Princely hat   Princely crown   Crown of a Landgrave   Crown of an heir to a duchy
  Older crown of a Count   Newer crown of a Count   Older crown of a Baron/Freiherr   Newer crown of a Baron/Freiherr
  Older Crown of Nobility   Newer Crown of Nobility

LiechtensteinEdit

  Prince of Liechtenstein

AustriaEdit

  Mural crown of the coat of arms of Austria   Mural crown of the State of Lower Austria

Austrian Empire

  Crown of the Emperor of Austria   Crown of the King of Bohemia   Archducal hat   Archducal crown
  Ducal hat of Styria   Ducal hat   Ducal crown   Princely hat
  Princely crown   Crown of a Count   Crown of a Baron/Freiherr   Crown of Nobility

GermanyEdit

  Volkskrone (People's Crown)   Mural crown of the arms of the Berlin boroughs

German Empire

  Crown of the German Emperor   Crown of the German Empress   Crown of the German Crown Prince
  Crown of the King of Prussia   Crown of the King of Bavaria   Crown of the King of Württemberg

GreeceEdit

  Crown of the King of the Hellenes   The Crown as it appears on the Royal Coat of Arms of Greece

HungaryEdit

  Holy Crown of Hungary

ItalyEdit

  Province   City   Municipality

Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)Edit

  King (crown of Savoy)   Heir to the throne (Prince of Piedmont)   Royal prince[b]   Prince of the blood
  Duke   Marquess   Count   Viscount
  Baron   Noble   Hereditary Knight   Patrician
  Province   City   Municipality

Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, Two SiciliesEdit

  King of Naples   Heir to the throne (Duke of Calabria)   Prince and princess

Grand Duchy of TuscanyEdit

  Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany

Other Italian states before 1861Edit

  Crown of San Marino   Crown of Napoleonic Italy   Iron Crown of Lombardy
  Papal Tiara   Doge of Venice   Doge of Genoa

Low CountriesEdit

NetherlandsEdit

  Emperor[citation needed]
  King   Prince
(Members of the Royal House,
children of the Monarch)
  Prince
(Members of the Royal House,
grandchildren of the Monarch)
  Prince
(nobility, for titles granted after 1815)
  Duke   Marquess   Count   Count
(alternative style)
  Viscount   Baron   Hereditary Knight
(Erfridder)
  Jonkheer

BelgiumEdit

The older crowns are often still seen in the heraldry of older families.

  King
(and princes of
the royal family)
  Prince
(nobility, for titles granted after 1815)
  Prince
(nobility, for titles granted during the Ancien Régime)
  Duke
  Marquess   Count   Count (older)   Count (oldest)
  Viscount   Baron   Baron (older)   Hereditary Knight
(Chevalier/Erfridder)

LuxembourgEdit

  Grand Duke

MonacoEdit

  Prince

Poland and LithuaniaEdit

  King   Grand Duke   Prince   Nobleman

Portuguese-speaking countriesEdit

PortugalEdit

  Capital (Lisbon)   City   Town   Civil Parish
  Administrative Region
(1930-1999)

Kingdom of Portugal (until 1910)

  King   Heir to the throne (Prince Royal)   Prince of Beira   Infante   Duke
  Marquess   Count   Viscount   Baron   Knight / Fidalgo

BrazilEdit

       
Capital[a] City[a] Town[a] Village[a]

Empire of Brazil

  Emperor   Heir to the throne (Prince Imperial)   Prince   Duke
  Marquess   Count   Viscount   Baron

RomaniaEdit

       
Capital City Town Village

Kingdom of RomaniaEdit

  King (The Steel Crown of Romania)

RussiaEdit

  Emperor   Crown of the Grand Duchy of Finland   Monomakh's Cap   Prince
  Count   Baron   Baron (alternative style)   Crown of Nobility

Nordic countriesEdit

DenmarkEdit

  King   Crown Prince   Prince (royal family)   Duke
  Marquess   Count   Baron   Crown of Nobility

FinlandEdit

During the Swedish reign, Swedish coronets were used. Crowns were used in the coats of arms of the historical provinces of Finland. For Finland Proper, Satakunta, Tavastia and Karelia, it was a ducal coronet, for others, a comital coronet. In 1917 with independence, the coat of arms of Finland was introduced with a Grand Ducal coronet, but it was soon removed, in 1920. Today, some cities use coronets, e.g. Pori has a mural crown and Vaasa a Crown of Nobility.

  Ducal coronet
Satakunta
  Comital coronet
Savo

NorwayEdit

 
Heraldic crown of the King
 
Physical crown of the King
 
Physical crown of the Queen
  Crown Prince   Duke   Marquess
  Count   Baron   Crown of Nobility

SwedenEdit

  King   Crown Prince  Duke
  Count   Baron   Crown of Nobility

SerbiaEdit

  King of Serbia (later of Yugoslavia)

Spanish-speaking countriesEdit

SpainEdit

  King (National arms design)   King (Monarch's arms design)   King (Aragon, Catalonia, Balearics, Valencia)   Heir to the throne (Prince of Asturias)
  Heir to the throne (Prince of Girona) (Aragon, Catalonia, Balearics, Valencia)   Infante   Infante (Aragon, Catalonia, Balearics, Valencia)   Grandee of Spain
  Duke   Marquess   Count   Viscount
  Baron   Señor/Don (Lord)   Hidalgo (Nobleman)   Knight's burelete

MexicoEdit

  Emperor (1st Empire)
  Emperor (2nd Empire)
  Prince (1st Empire and 2nd Empire)

Non-European usagesEdit

BahrainEdit

  King

BhutanEdit

  'Raven Crown' of the Kingdom of Bhutan

CambodiaEdit

  Crown of the Kingdom of Cambodia

Central African EmpireEdit

  Emperor



Egypt before 1953Edit

  Khedive (-1914) and Sultan (1914-22)
  King (1922-53)

JordanEdit

  Crown of Jordan

MoroccoEdit

  Heraldic Crown of Morocco

OmanEdit

  Crown of Oman

Saudi ArabiaEdit

  Heraldic Crown of Saudi Arabia

Siam and ThailandEdit

  Great Crown of Victory of the Kings of Siam and Thailand
  Phra Kiao (princely coronet, also the emblem of King Chulalongkorn)

TongaEdit

  Crown of Tonga

Other examplesEdit

  Imperial Crown of Ethiopia   Royal Crown of Hawaii   Crown of the Shah of Persia   Crown of the Shah of Iran
  American Coronet   Royal Crown of Tahiti  
Twig crown of the
Republic of the Congo

[5]

Catholic ChurchEdit

MultinationalEdit

As a chargeEdit

In heraldry, a charge is an image occupying the field of a coat of arms. Many coats of arms incorporate crowns as charges. One notable example of this lies in the Three Crowns of the arms of Sweden.

Additionally, many animal charges (frequently lions) and sometimes human heads also appear crowned. Animal charges gorged (collared) of an open coronet also occur, though far less frequently.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f This standard has many exceptions.
  2. ^ The dukes of Genoa were granted the privilege to use a crown of royal prince though they were only princes of the blood

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Mackinnon of Dunakin, Charles (1968). The Observer's Book of Heraldry. Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd. p. 73.
  2. ^ Moncreiffe, Iain; Pottinger, Don (1953). Simple Heraldry Cheerfully Illustrated. Thomas Nelson and Sons. p. 58.
  3. ^ Cox, Noel The Coronets of Members of the Royal Family and of the Peerage. Originally published in (1999) 22 The Double Tressure, the Journal of The Heraldry Society of Scotland 8-13. Acceded 8 April 2017
  4. ^ Boutell, Charles (1914). Fox-Davies, A.C. (ed.). Handbook to English Heraldry, The (11th ed.). London: Reeves & Turner. pp. 104–156.
  5. ^ Ströhl, Hugo Gerard (1899). Heraldischer Atlas. Stuttgart.