Francisco Craveiro Lopes
Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes (Portuguese pronunciation: [fɾɐ̃ˈsiʃku iˈʒinu kɾɐˈvɐjɾu ˈlɔpɨʃ]), GCTE, ComC, GCA, (12 April 1894 – 2 September 1964) was a Portuguese politician and military man. Decorated with the Order of the Bath and the Royal Victorian Chain, he was the 12th President of the Portuguese Republic between 1951 and 1958.
Francisco Craveiro Lopes
|12th President of Portugal|
9 August 1951 – 9 August 1958
|Prime Minister||António de Oliveira Salazar|
|Preceded by||Óscar Carmona|
|Succeeded by||Américo Tomás|
|Interim Governor-General of the Portuguese India|
17 September 1936 – 12 July 1938
|Preceded by||João Carlos Craveiro Lopes|
|Succeeded by||José Ricardo Pereira Cabral|
Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes
12 April 1894
Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
|Died||2 September 1964 (aged 70)|
Lisbon, Portuguese Republic
|Political party||National Union|
|Spouse(s)||Berta da Costa Ribeiro Arthur|
|Profession||Air force officer|
|Awards||Order of Christ|
Order of Aviz
Order of the Tower and Sword
Order of the Bath
Royal Victorian Chain
|Branch/service||Portuguese Air Force|
|Years of service||1911–1964|
|Rank||Marshal of the air force|
Early life and careerEdit
He concluded his Colégio Militar studies by 1911, having then entered the Escola Politécnica de Lisboa, in the same year he joined a cavalry regiment. He succeeded his father as the 123rd General Governor of Portuguese India (1936–1938).
Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar chose Craveiro Lopes as the regime's presidential candidate in 1951 to succeed the late Óscar Carmona. As the electoral system was heavily rigged in favour of Salazar's National Union, this made Craveiro Lopes' election a foregone conclusion. He was elected unopposed after the only other candidate withdrew before election day.
Under the Constitution, the president was vested with near-dictatorial powers. In practice, Carmona had mostly turned over the government to Salazar. However, unlike Carmona, Craveiro Lopes was not content to be a mere puppet. He did not, however, go as far as to dismiss Salazar; for all intents and purposes, the president's power to remove Salazar from office was the only check on Salazar's power.
Nevertheless, Salazar picked the seemingly more pliant naval minister, Américo Tomás, as the regime's candidate in 1958. The Democratic Opposition then invited Craveiro Lopes to be their candidate, but he knew he stood no chance of winning and refused. The regime, however, as compensation promoted him to Marshal. He was involved in the failed military attempt to overthrow Salazar, in 1961, led by the Defence Minister, general Júlio Botelho Moniz.
He died in Lisbon on 2 September 1964.
He married Berta Ribeiro Artur (Lisbon, Pena, 15 October 1899 – Lisbon, Santa Maria de Belém, 5 July 1958), natural daughter of Engineer Sezinando Ribeiro Artur (Lisbon, 1875 – Lourenço Marques, 1918) by Maria Clara Pereira, by whom he had four children.