Open main menu

Covert racism

Covert racism is a form of racial discrimination that is disguised and subtle, rather than public or obvious. Concealed in the fabric of society, covert racism discriminates against individuals through often evasive or seemingly passive methods.[1] Covert, racially biased decisions are often hidden or rationalized with an explanation that society is more willing to accept. These racial biases cause a variety of problems that work to empower the suppressors while diminishing the rights and powers of the oppressed. Covert racism often works subliminally, and often much of the discrimination is being done subconsciously.[2]

George M. Fredrickson states that racism possesses a generative force more powerful than mere class or caste self-interest alone and is suspicious of arguments that discount matters of ideology, thought and culture and overvalue those of instinct and habit.[3]

Contents

Background on raceEdit

One popular theory on race, promulgated by Judge Tucker, posits that there exist natural, physical divisions among humans that are hereditary, reflected in morphology, and roughly but correctly captured by terms like "black", "white", and "Asian" (or "Negroid", "Caucasoid", and "Mongoloid"). Some argue this theory serves to suppress and exploit the outgroup or "racialized others".[4]

History in the U.S.Edit

With the long history of slavery in the United States, racism has always been an issue. The enslavement of millions of Africans along with the huge influx of immigrants throughout its history has allowed great diversity, but has created racial segregation. With the abolition of slavery, different forms of segregation were implemented, including Jim Crow laws and the later American political structures which invited extreme segregation within cities and the suburbanization of the white working and middle class.[5] As overt and obvious racial discrimination became illegal and less and less apparent, the idea that the nation was homogenizing became popular. It was thought that as the U.S. accepted more immigrants from different cultures a sort of "melting pot" would occur and unify everyone under one creed. Along with this, ideologies formed that every group of immigrants goes through the same discrimination. Groups were thought to eventually assimilate, but racism remained and is still present today.[6]

When black G.I.s returned home from the Vietnam War, they were denied the money promised to them to support their education and help them buy homes. While only 9.5% of soldiers serving in Vietnam were black, they comprised nearly 20% of front line troops, and 25% or more of airborne divisions. Black servicemen were twice as likely to re-enlist in the Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force and three times as likely to re-enlist in the Army as their white counterparts, not for any sense of adventure, but because they found the monetary rewards to be promising and they were treated as equals or near equals.[7]

Racially constructed barriersEdit

In the 1950s, shortly after World War II, urban areas were overtly divided into blocks by race. Blocks occupied by minorities were close to toxic dumps, busy highways, and other undesirable locations throughout cities. Whites lived away from these areas and often realtors would not be able to show properties to whites within these areas. Landlords could choose to not rent apartments to certain minority groups, maintaining segregation. Until the late 1960s, the government sanctioned discrimination in housing markets by promulgating rules preventing blacks from receiving mortgages insured by the Federal Housing Administration.[8] FHA loans, a Federal Mortgage programme, goes to the white majority and reaches few minorities. In a study done in Syracuse between 1996 and 2000, of the 2,169 FHA loans issued, only 29 (or 1.3 percent) went to predominantly minority neighborhoods, compared with 1,694 (or 78.1 percent) that went to white neighborhoods and 446 (or 20 percent) that went to integrated neighborhoods.[9][10] Mortgage discrimination played a significant part in the real estate bubble that popped during the later part of 2008. It was found that minorities were disproportionately steered by lenders into subprime loans.[11] The division of neighborhoods into school districts that avoid integration and end up investing on the "whiteness" of their neighborhoods, and the resulting residential and social segregation of whites from blacks in the United States, creates a socialization process that limits whites' chances for developing meaningful relationships with blacks and other minorities. The wealthy also control some of these divisions, which results in the minorities being excluded due to the low levels of income in most minority neighborhoods. The segregation experienced by whites from blacks fosters segregated lifestyles and leads them to develop positive views about themselves and negative views about blacks.[12] Many blacks and Latinos have been discriminated against when applying for jobs because of stereotypes about work ethic based on race, and having a name that sounds "black" can sometimes lead to that person being denied an interview.[13] Minorities are less likely to obtain key information regarding job interviews and are often denied access to high-paying jobs.[14]

Minorities are also denied access to a quality education.[15] This is usually because many poor areas also predominantly consist of minorities. This means that there is often a lack of funding in schools. The levels of poverty and lack of educational opportunities perpetuate themselves, creating a vicious cycle. Racial stereotypes emerge and these populations are further disenfranchised by individuals who do not help or do not care.[16] In the new Civil Rights Project report from UCLA, dated January 2009, it stated that schools are more segregated today than they were in the 1950s. Millions of non-white students are locked into "dropout factory" high schools, where huge percentages do not graduate, and few are well prepared for college or a future in the U.S. economy.[17]

A majority of the prison population in the U.S. consists of racial minorities. According to the Center for American Progress, black men are approximately seven times more likely to be incarcerated than whites, and spend on average ten months longer in prison.[18] Since the beating of Rodney King (1991) was videotaped and was broadcast around the world, local and federal law-enforcement agencies have opened investigations to determine whether or not there is a pattern of police brutality not only in Los Angeles but around the country.[19]

Demographic differences in healthcareEdit

In the United States, health disparities are well documented in ethnic minorities such as African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics.[20] When compared to whites, these minority groups have higher incidence of chronic diseases, higher mortality, and poorer health outcomes. Among the disease-specific examples of racial and ethnic disparities in the United States is the cancer incidence rate among African Americans, which is 25% higher than among whites.[21] In addition, adult African Americans and Hispanics have approximately twice the risk as whites of developing diabetes. Minorities also have higher rates of cardiovascular disease, HIV/AIDS, and infant mortality than whites.[21] Caucasian Americans have much lower life expectancy than Asian Americans.[22] A 2001 study found large racial differences exist in healthy life expectancy at lower levels of education.[23]

Public spending is highly correlated with age; average per capita public spending for seniors was more than five times that for children ($6,921 versus $1,225). Average public spending for non-Hispanic blacks ($2,973) was slightly higher than that for whites ($2,675), while spending for Hispanics ($1,967) was significantly lower than the population average ($2,612). Total public spending is also strongly correlated with self-reported health status ($13,770 for those reporting "poor" health versus $1,279 for those reporting "excellent" health).[24]

There is a great deal of research into inequalities in health care. In some cases, these inequalities are caused by income disparities that result in lack of health insurance and other barriers to receiving services.[25] In other cases, inequalities in health care reflect a systemic bias in the way medical procedures and treatments are prescribed for different ethnic groups. Raj Bhopal writes that the history of racism in science and medicine shows that people and institutions behave according to the ethos of their times.[26] Nancy Krieger wrote that racism underlies unexplained inequities in health care, including treatment for heart disease,[27] renal failure,[28] bladder cancer,[29] and pneumonia.[30] Raj Bhopal writes that these inequalities have been documented in numerous studies. The consistent and repeated findings were that black Americans received less health care than white Americans, particularly when the care involved expensive new technology.[31] One recent study has found that when minority and white patients use the same hospital, they are given the same standard of care.[32][33]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Coates, Rodney (2007). Coates, Rodney, ed. Covert Racism. Lieden, The Netherlands: Brill.
  2. ^ Pierce, Chester (1970). "Offensive Mechanisms". In Barbour, Floyd. The Black Seventies. Boston, Massachusetts: Porter Sargent Publisher.
  3. ^ Miller RM; Fredrickson, George M. (August 1990). "Review — The Arrogance of Race: Historical Perspectives on Slavery, Racism, and Social Inequality". The Journal of Southern History. Southern Historical Association. 56 (3): 575–6. doi:10.2307/2210337. JSTOR 2210337.
  4. ^ Ian F. Haney Lopez (Winter 1994). "The Social Construction of Race: Some Observations on Illusion, Fabrication, and Choice". Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  5. ^ Weir, Margaret (Summer 1993). "Race And Urban Poverty: Comparing Europe And America". Brookings Review. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  6. ^ "'Melting pot' America". BBC News. May 12, 2006. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
  7. ^ Ebony - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  8. ^ Weir, Margaret (Summer 1993). "Race And Urban Poverty: Comparing Europe And America". Brookings Review. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  9. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-86148585.html. Retrieved January 20, 2010. Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  10. ^ Sieh, Maureen (May 21, 2002). "Few FHA loans go to minorities, study says". The Post-Standard. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  11. ^ Nasiripour, Shahien (October 1, 2009). "Minorities More Likely To Be Denied Refinancing". Huffington Post. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  12. ^ "Every Place Has a Ghetto...": The Significance of Whites' Social and Residential Segregation Eduardo Bonilla-Silva and David G. Embrick Symbolic Interaction Summer 2007, Vol. 30, No. 3, Pages 323-345
  13. ^ Krueger, Alan B. (December 12, 2002). "Economic Scene; Sticks and stones can break bones, but the wrong name can make a job hard to find". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
  14. ^ "Worries Facing Minority Education". Eserver.org. 1995-05-05. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  15. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-13. Retrieved 2010-01-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ Corsi, Jerome. "Paved with Good Intentions: The Failure of Race Relations in Contemporary America (9780965638340): Jared Taylor: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  17. ^ "US Schools are More Segregated Today than in the 1950s". Project Censored. Archived from the original on November 25, 2011. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  18. ^ Cawthorne, Alexandra (April 15, 2009). "Weathering the Storm: Black Men in the Recession". Center for American Progress. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  19. ^ Stevenson, Richard W.; Egan, Timothy (March 18, 1991). "Seven Minutes In Los Angeles - A special report.; Videotaped Beating by Officers Puts Full Glare on Brutality Issue". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
  20. ^ Goldberg, J., Hayes, W., and Huntley, J. "Understanding Health Disparities." Archived 2008-05-15 at the Wayback Machine. Health Policy Institute of Ohio (November 2004), page 3.
  21. ^ a b American Public Health Association (APHA), Eliminating Health Disparities: Toolkit (2004).
  22. ^ "Study: Race, Location Affects Longevity". Associated Press. September 16, 2006. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  23. ^ Crimmins EM, Saito Y (June 2001). "Trends in healthy life expectancy in the United States, 1970–1990: gender, racial, and educational differences". Soc Sci Med. 52 (11): 1629–41. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00273-2. PMID 11327137.
  24. ^ "The Distribution Of Public Spending For Health Care In The United States, 2002". Content.healthaffairs.org. 2008-07-29. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  25. ^ "How Trends in the Health Care System Affect Low-Income Adults: Identifying Access Problems and Financial Burdens", Issue Brief: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, December 21, 2007. Retrieved February 26, 2008.
  26. ^ Bhopal R (June 1998). "Spectre of racism in health and health care: lessons from history and the United States". BMJ. 316 (7149): 1970–3. doi:10.1136/bmj.316.7149.1970. PMC 1113412. PMID 9641943.
  27. ^ Oberman A, Cutter G (September 1984). "Issues in the natural history and treatment of coronary heart disease in black populations: surgical treatment". Am. Heart J. 108 (3 Pt 2): 688–94. doi:10.1016/0002-8703(84)90656-2. PMID 6332513.
  28. ^ Kjellstrand CM (June 1988). "Age, sex, and race inequality in renal transplantation". Arch. Intern. Med. 148 (6): 1305–9. doi:10.1001/archinte.148.6.1305. PMID 3288159.[permanent dead link]
  29. ^ Mayer WJ, McWhorter WP (June 1989). "Black/white differences in non-treatment of bladder cancer patients and implications for survival". Am J Public Health. 79 (6): 772–5. doi:10.2105/AJPH.79.6.772. PMC 1349641. PMID 2729474.
  30. ^ Yergan J, Flood AB, LoGerfo JP, Diehr P. Relationship between patient race and the intensity of hospital services. Med Care. 1987;25:592–603.
  31. ^ "Black-white disparities in health care". JAMA. 263 (17): 2344–6. May 1990. doi:10.1001/jama.263.17.2344. PMID 2182918.
  32. ^ Darrell J. Gaskin, Christine S. Spencer, Patrick Richard, Gerard F. Anderson, Neil R. Powe, and Thomas A. LaVeist, "Do Hospitals Provide Lower-Quality Care To Minorities Than To Whites?," Health Affairs, March/April 2008
  33. ^ "In the Literature: Do Hospitals Provide Lower-Quality Care To Minorities Than To Whites?," The Commonwealth Fund, March 11, 2008

Further readingEdit