Conroe is a city in and the county seat of Montgomery County, Texas, United States, about 40 miles (64 km) north of Houston. It is a principal city in the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area.[6]

City of Conroe
Downtown Conroe
Downtown Conroe
Location in Montgomery County in the state of Texas
Location in Montgomery County in the state of Texas
Coordinates: 30°18′58″N 95°27′32″W / 30.31611°N 95.45889°W / 30.31611; -95.45889[1]
CountryUnited States United States
StateTexas Texas
 • TypeMayor-Council
 • City CouncilMayorJody Czajkoski
Curt Maddux
Todd Yancey
Marsha Porter
Howard Wood
Harry Hardman
 • City AdministratorGary Scott
 • Total72.77 sq mi (188.48 km2)
 • Land71.97 sq mi (186.41 km2)
 • Water0.80 sq mi (2.07 km2)
205 ft (62.5 m)
 • Total89,956
 • Density1,265.44/sq mi (488.59/km2)
Time zoneUTC-6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP code(s)
77301–77304, 77306, 77384, 77385
PO Box code(s)
Area code936
FIPS code48-16432[4]
GNIS feature ID1333238[5]

As of 2023, the population was 103,035.[7] Since 2007, the city has increased in size (and population) by annexation, with the city territory expanding from 52.8 to 74.4 square miles. Some communities have attempted to fight such annexation. According to the Census Bureau, Conroe was the fastest-growing large city in the United States between July 1, 2015, and July 1, 2016.[3]

History edit

The city is named after Isaac Conroe. Born in the North, he served as a Union Cavalry officer and settled in Houston after the Civil War. There he became a lumberman.[8] Conroe founded a sawmill in this area in 1881.[8] The community built its early economy and wealth on the lumber industry. Originally named "Conroe's Switch",[8] the community received an influx of workers and residents in the late 19th century who were attracted to the growth of the lumber industry, which harvested the local piney wood forest.[8]

In 1886, Conroe Mill School was established in the expanding town. Conroe Normal and Industrial College, a school for African Americans, served the area.

Six lynchings were recorded in Montgomery County around the turn of the century, and some suspects were lynched at the courthouse in Conroe. In 1922, a young black man named Joe Winters was lynched, burned alive on the courthouse square for allegedly attacking a young white woman.[9] Within the black community, it was known he was in a consensual relationship with the woman, who denied it when they were discovered.

In 1941 Bob White was shot to death in the courthouse, during his third trial. The African-American man was arrested in 1936 on charges of assaulting a white woman in Livingston, Texas. (Alternative accounts in the black community said they had a standing consensual relationship.) He was first tried there, before an all-white jury. They convicted him. The case was appealed with the help of the NAACP in Houston because he had not been given a lawyer or been able to contact family, and he was tortured in interrogation. The second trial was held in Conroe for a change of venue. Another all-white jury convicted White again. The case reached the United States Supreme Court on appeal, which had just ruled that coerced confessions were unconstitutional and remanded the case to the lower court for trial. During the proceedings in the courtroom, in front of the judge and numerous witnesses, the husband of the alleged victim shot White in the back of the head and immediately killed him. The husband was arrested and tried the following week, and was acquitted.

In 1931 George W. Strake discovered the Conroe Oil Field. Distillate and natural gas were produced from the Cockfield Formation at a depth of about 5,000 feet (1,500 m). cA second well in 1932 produced 1200 BOPD. By 1935, the field had produced 40 million barrels of oil.[10][11]

During the 1930s, because of oil profits, the city briefly boasted more millionaires per capita than any other U.S. city.[8] After the construction of Interstate 45 in the postwar period improved automobile access, many Houstonians began to follow the highway to new suburban communities that developed around Conroe.[8]

Geography edit

The Office of Management and Budget classifies Conroe as a principal city within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area.[12] The city is about 40 miles (64 km) north of Houston.[13]

Annexation edit

When Conroe incorporated in 1904, the city limits encompassed a 5.44 square mile area. From 1970 to 2000, the city limits expanded from 7.15 square miles to 42.35 square miles.[14] Beginning in 2007, the city outlined a plan to continue expanding its city limits through annexation.[15] According to Chapter 43 of the Texas Local Government Code, home rule municipalities like Conroe may annex territory that is adjacent to the city's current boundaries, with certain restrictions.[16] The city's 2007 plan projected doubling its size through a combination of voluntary and involuntary annexations.[15] As of 2022, the city has annexed territory every year since 2007, increasing the city limits from 52.8 to 77.5 square miles.[17][18][19]

In April 2015, residents of the gated community of April Sound filed a lawsuit against Conroe after their community was annexed on January 1, 2015. The lawsuit was dismissed in March 2017.[17][20] Involuntary annexations were a major issue in the 2016 mayoral election, the first after April Sound residents were incorporated into the city. Proponents of annexation contended that it was a useful tool to "promote and facilitate growth and progress," while those in opposition were concerned about whether annexed territories receive a "fair shake" in the negotiations.[21] In 2017, the city council voted in favor of additional involuntary annexations.[22]

Ecosystem edit

Middle Lake on the southern side of Jones State Forest.

Conroe is in the southwest corner of the East Texas Piney Woods.[23] The Piney Woods consist of pine trees and hardwood forests. The most common type of tree in the southwest Piney Woods is the loblolly pine. Shortleaf pine are also abundant.[24] Pockets of blackland prairie vegetation are also present, but are disappearing due to urbanization.[25]

In 1926, the Texas A&M Forest Service purchased 1700 acres of Piney Woods to establish W. Goodrich Jones State Forest. The forest serves as a research and demonstration area for sustainable forestry techniques. The forest also preserves the habitat of the red-cockaded woodpecker, a species classified in the early 21st century as Near Threatened by the IUCN.[26][27]

In 2017, Texas A&M asked Conroe state senator Brandon Creighton to author a bill setting aside 10 percent of the forest for educational and research-related development. The bill also opened the possibility of commercial development on the land.[28] Public concern over the bill persuaded Creighton to revise it. The final version, which passed the Senate unanimously, protected the entire forest from development.[29]

Water resources edit

The West Fork of the San Jacinto River as seen from McDade Park on the western edge of Conroe.

The West Fork of the San Jacinto River flows through the western edge of Conroe. The entire city is within the river's watershed.[30] The river flows southeast from Lake Conroe, a 19,640 surface acre lake created by a dam in 1973 to establish an alternative source of drinking water for Houston.[31]

Conroe developed over several geologic layers of underground aquifers, which supply the city with fresh drinking water.[32] Due to rapid development in this area, and the increased population of Conroe and the surrounding area, the groundwater supply is being withdrawn faster than it can be replenished.[33] As a result, the Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, which oversees groundwater usage in Montgomery County, mandated that Conroe reduce its groundwater usage by 30 percent of 2009 amounts by January 1, 2016.[34] As part of the groundwater usage reduction plan, the San Jacinto River Authority began in September 2015 to supplement Conroe's groundwater supply with surface water pumped from Lake Conroe.[31] The SJRA charges the city usage fees to cover the cost of pumping and treating the water.[35]

On August 27, 2015, the City of Conroe filed a lawsuit against the Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, claiming that the LSGCD did not have the authority to limit the city's groundwater usage.[34] The city also refused to pay SJRA water usage fee increases in 2016, resulting in a separate lawsuit filed by the SJRA against the city.[35] The LSGCD and Conroe reached a settlement agreement in January 2019.[36] The SJRA case was dismissed in June 2020.[37]

Parts of Conroe surrounding the West Fork of the San Jacinto River are in a floodplain.[38] Significant flooding occurs along the floodplain when rainfall exceeds nine inches in a 48-hour period. The Conroe area has approximately a 10 percent chance of receiving this much rainfall in any given year.[25] Urban development in Conroe and the surrounding area has also exacerbated the risk of flooding.[39] Montgomery County had 500-year floods in three successive years, in May 2015, April 2016, and August 2017.[40] A 500-year flood has a 0.2 percent chance of occurring in a year.[25] In addition, a fourth major flood occurred in May 2016, resulting in two major floods in two months.[39]

The flooding in August 2017 took place during Hurricane Harvey, when nearly 32 inches of rain fell on the city.[41] To protect the integrity of the dam, San Jacinto River Authority officials released 79,100 cubic feet per second of water from Lake Conroe downstream into the West Fork of the San Jacinto River, exacerbating flooding already taking place in the floodplain.[40] Conroe city officials ordered a mandatory evacuation of McDade Estates, a neighborhood on the banks of the river.[41][42] As a response to the flooding, Montgomery County commissioners in October 2017 requested $1.25 million from the federal government for a flood mitigation study, along with an additional $95.5 million to implement various flood mitigation projects.[40]

Demographics edit

Historical population
2023 (est.)103,03514.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[43] 2010–2020, 2021[44][7]

Map of racial distribution in Conroe, 2020 U.S. census. Each dot is one person:  White  Black  Asian  Hispanic  Multiracial  Native American/Other

During the first decade of the 21st century, the city attracted many new residents from the Houston area. Renée C. Lee said that Conroe around 2002 was "a sleepy, backwater town" and that at the time, Conroe city officials needed to use financial incentives to attract home developers to Conroe. Between 2003 and 2006, Conroe became a hotbed of construction of new houses.[45] As a result, Conroe's population grew from 36,811 in 2000 to 56,207 in 2010.

Conroe racial composition as of 2020[46]
(NH = Non-Hispanic)[a]
Race Number Percentage
White (NH) 45,272 50.33%
Black or African American (NH) 8,951 9.95%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 299 0.33%
Asian (NH) 2,412 2.68%
Pacific Islander (NH) 85 0.09%
Some Other Race (NH) 348 0.39%
Mixed/Multi-Racial (NH) 3,112 3.46%
Hispanic or Latino 29,477 32.77%
Total 89,956

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 89,956 people, 32,547 households, and 21,369 families residing in the city.

As of the census[48] of 2010, there were 56,207 people, 18,651 households, and 13,086 families residing in the city. Since the 2010 census, Conroe's population has continued to grow. Between 2014 and 2015, Conroe was the sixth fastest growing city in the United States.[49] The following year, the US Census Bureau reported that Conroe was the fastest-growing large city in the United States. It had a 7.8% growth rate between 2015 and 2016.[3][50] New housing developments throughout the city have contributed to the rapid population growth.[49] Conroe's annexation of growing communities within its extraterritorial jurisdiction has also contributed to its growth.[17]

The racial makeup of the city was 69.7% White (including Hispanic), 10.3% African American, 1.2% Native American, 1.8% Asian, less than 0.05% Pacific Islander, 13.7% from other races, and 3.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 38.5% of the population. White alone (not Hispanic or Latino) were 48.3% of the total population.

According to the 2016 American Community Survey,[48] the median income for a household in the city was $50,517 and the median income for a family was $60,087. Males had a median income of $44,343 versus $37,747 for females. The per capita income for the city was $28,672. About 12.2% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.4% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. In response to income inequality, several non-profit groups including the Montgomery County United Way, The Salvation Army, and the Crisis Assistance Center help provide residents of the area with a variety of services ranging from transportation to food and shelter.[51]

Economy edit

In the early 1980s, Exxon considered consolidating its employees to a site in Conroe. The company ended the plans after the local oil-based economy collapsed.[52]

According to the City's 2016 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[53] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Conroe Independent School District 7,200
2 Montgomery County 2,166
3 Conroe Regional Medical Center 1,226
4 City of Conroe 529
5 Community Pathology Associates 424
6 National Oilwell Varco - Downhole 400
7 Tony Gullo Motors 305
8 Lowe's 300
9 Medivators, Inc. 300
10 Walmart 300

Culture edit

Crighton Theatre, first opened as a movie theatre in 1935, now hosts live theatrical performances.

Downtown Conroe's Central Business District[18] hosts multiple arts venues. The oldest is the Crighton Theatre, which opened on November 26, 1935. The theatre is named after Harry M. Crighton, Conroe's mayor from 1932 to 1933. The theatre functioned as the community's movie theatre until 1967, at which point it fell into disrepair. In 1979 it was renovated, and it now hosts live theatrical productions.[54] Another theatre, the Owen Theatre, is also located in the district.[55] The Central Business District has outdoor performance venues at Conroe Founder's Plaza and Heritage Place, which host multiple festivals throughout the year.[56]

The city supports several arts organizations, including the Greater Conroe Arts Alliance.[57] The Alliance is a network of multiple arts groups in the city such as the Conroe Symphony, the Conroe Art League, and the Montgomery County Choral Society.[58] The Alliance also sponsors, along with the state of Texas, the Young Texas Artists Music Competition. The competition, founded in 1983, showcases young musicians who aspire to careers in classical music.[59] In 2009, the city sponsored the Art Bench Project, which converted 13 stone benches scattered throughout the central business district into works of art. Each bench portrays a different part of Conroe's history and culture, from historical figures like George Strake and Charles B. Stewart to contemporary art groups such as the Crighton Players.[60]

Parks and recreation edit

Montgomery County Heritage Museum

The city contains multiple parks which document local history. The Heritage Museum of Montgomery County maintains artifacts of Montgomery County's early settlers.[61][62]

The Lone Star Monument and Historical Flag Park displays the flags that flew over Texas. The flags are positioned in a circle around the park, with a statue of a Texian in the center. Each flag comes with a plaque that describes its connection to Texas history.[63] At the park's entrance is a statue of Charles B. Stewart, who is claimed to have designed the lone star flag.[64]

Montgomery County War Memorial Park is a memorial to the 166 soldiers from Montgomery County who have been killed in active duty. The park's dedication ceremony was in 1976 and featured a speech by President Gerald Ford.[65][66] In 2017, the Montgomery County Commissioners Court and the City of Conroe agreed to relocate and expand the memorial, to include the names of up to 50,000 soldiers who have lived in Montgomery County.[65][67] As of June 2019, the expansion is ongoing.[68]

Lake Conroe, northwest of downtown Conroe,[18] is a site for such water-based activities as boating and fishing. The most common fish in the lake are Largemouth bass, bluegill, channel catfish, white bass, and hybrid striped bass. Crappie may also be found in the early spring and fall.[69]

Government edit

Local government edit

The Montgomery County Courthouse in downtown Conroe.

For the 2019 Fiscal Year, the city had $157.8 million in revenues and $147.9 million in expenditures. The city's net position was $189.7 million.[70]

The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:[71]

Department Director
City Administrator Paul Virgadamo, Jr.
City Secretary Soco Gorjon
City Attorney Marcus Winberry
Asst. City Administrator and Chief Financial Officer Steve Williams
Director of Public Works Norman McGuire
Director of Capital Projects/Transportation Tommy Woolley
Director of Community Development Nancy Mikeska
Director of Parks and Recreation Mike Riggens
Director of Human Resources Andre Houser
Chief of Police Jeff Christy
Chief of Fire Ken Kreger
Executive Director of Economic Development Danielle Scheiner

Law enforcement edit

The Conroe Police Department has 142 full-time police officers and 42 support staff.[72] The department has a number of bureaus. The Uniformed Services Bureau includes the Patrol Division, SWAT a part time unit and honor guard. The Support Services Bureau the Criminal Investigations Division and animal control unit.

On 14 September 1982, Sergeant Ed Holcomb was shot and killed while responding to a domestic disturbance call.[73]

In July 2013, Conroe Police Sergeant Jason Blackwelder was off duty, and he observed store employees chasing a shoplifting suspect. He joined the chase. In an isolated area, Blackwelder killed the suspect with a single gunshot to the back of the head. In June 2014, he was convicted of manslaughter. He was sentenced to five years' probation.[74]

Public libraries edit

The county operates the main branch of the Montgomery County Memorial Library System.

State government edit

98% of Conroe is represented in the Texas Senate (District 4) by Republican Brandon Creighton. A small portion of the northern part of Conroe is part of District 3, represented by Republican Robert Nichols.[75]

In the Texas House of Representatives, 94% of Conroe is part of District 16, represented by Republican Will Metcalf. The southern portion of Conroe is in District 15, represented by Republican Steve Toth. Less than 1% of Conroe residents are part of District 3, represented by Republican Cecil Bell, Jr.[75]

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) operates the Conroe District Parole Office in Conroe.[76]

Federal government edit

At the Federal level, the two U.S. senators from Texas are Republicans John Cornyn and Ted Cruz. Conroe is part of Texas's 8th congressional district, which is represented by Republican Morgan Luttrell.[75]

The United States Postal Service Conroe Post Office is located at 809 West Dallas Street.[77]

Education edit

Conroe High School, Conroe Independent School District.

Colleges and universities edit

Residents of both Conroe ISD and Willis ISD (and therefore the whole city of Conroe) are served by the Lone Star College System (formerly North Harris Montgomery Community College).[78]

It is primarily served by the Lone Star College-Montgomery Campus and LSC University Center. Other campuses in the county include the EMCID Center in New Caney, and the Conroe Center.[79] The territory in Conroe ISD joined the community college district in 1991, and the territory in Willis ISD joined the district in 1996.[80]

The Catholic University of St. Thomas opened a campus in Conroe in fall 2020. The Old Conroe Police building has been adapted to serve as a temporary site for up to three years. The permanent campus is proposed to be at Deison Technology Park. Class of 1952 alumnus Vincent D'Amico offered the university 50 acres (20 ha) of land in east Montgomery County for the project.[81]

Public school districts edit

Almost all areas of Conroe are within the Conroe Independent School District though a small northern section of Conroe is within the Willis Independent School District, and a western section is in the Montgomery Independent School District.[82]

Conroe Independent School District edit

All of the schools listed here are in the city of Conroe. Approximately 60% of the Conroe ISD section of Conroe is zoned to Conroe High School[83] though some parts of Conroe attend Oak Ridge High School and Caney Creek High School.

The junior high schools that serve the Conroe High School feeder zone are:

  • John V. Peet Junior High School
  • Washington Junior High School
  • Albert B. Moorhead Junior High School

Some intermediate schools that serve the Conroe High School feeder zone are:

  • Cryar Intermediate School
  • Travis Intermediate School
  • Bozman Intermediate School

Some elementary schools that serve the Conroe High School feeder zone are:

  • Anderson Elementary School
  • Neil Armstrong Elementary School
  • Giesinger Elementary School
  • Sam Houston Elementary School
  • O. A. Reaves Elementary School
  • B. B. Rice Elementary School
  • J. W. Runyan Elementary School
  • Wilkinson Elementary School

Willis Independent School District edit

The Willis ISD section is zoned to Turner Elementary School,[84] Brabham Middle School,[85] and Willis High School.[86]

Private schools edit

The closest Catholic high school is Frassati Catholic High School in north Harris County; Conroe is in the school's intended catchment area.[87]

Media edit

The Courier is a daily newspaper published in Conroe, Texas, covering Montgomery County. In 2016, the newspaper was purchased by Hearst Communications, a media conglomerate which also owns and operates the Houston Chronicle.[88]

Two Houston television stations, Ion owned-and-operated KPXB-TV (channel 49) and Quest owned-and-operated KTBU (channel 55), are licensed to Conroe. Both stations operate from studios located in the city of Houston.

Infrastructure edit

Transportation edit

View of Texas State Highway 105 in downtown Conroe. The archway connects the Montgomery County Courthouse (right) with the Montgomery County Court Annex.

In 2012 the U.S. Census Bureau classified the area around Conroe and The Woodlands as a "large urbanized transit area." This is defined as an area having more than 200,000 residents, which makes it eligible to receive federal transportation funds, particularly to support transit.[89]

Union Pacific Railroad Corporation operates another busy main line that runs north from Houston in Harris County to Palestine in Anderson County, known as the Palestine subdivision. The two railroads intersect at a diamond in downtown Conroe between Main and First Streets.[91]

Healthcare edit

In the early 1920s the Mary Swain Sanitarium, was established as the first organized healthcare institution in the city.[92] The Mary Swain Sanitarium was private.[93]

In 1938 the Montgomery County Hospital, a public institution, replaced it. It had 25 beds.[93] The hospital closed after a new hospital of the Montgomery County Hospital District opened in 1982.[92]

Notable people edit

Climate edit

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Conroe has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.[105]

Climate data for Conroe, 1991–2020 normals,[b] extremes 1897–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 84
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 62.7
Daily mean °F (°C) 52.3
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 41.9
Record low °F (°C) 5
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.38
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9 9 8 7 6 8 9 7 7 7 8 10 94
Source: NOAA (precipitation days 2000–2017)[106][107]

See also edit

Explanatory notes edit

  1. ^ Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.[47]
  2. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.

References edit

  1. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  2. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  3. ^ a b c "The 15 Fastest-Growing Large Cities between July 1, 2015, and July 1, 2016 (Populations of 50,000 or more in 2015)" Vintage 2016 population estimates: United States Census Bureau. Accessed on June 15, 2017.
  4. ^ "2010 ANSI Codes for Places". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  5. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  6. ^ "OMB Bulletin No. 20-01: Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas" (PDF). March 6, 2020. Retrieved April 22, 2022.
  7. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. Large Southern Cities Lead Nation in Population Growth, May 18, 2023
  8. ^ a b c d e f Jackson, Charles Christopher. Conroe, TX. The Handbook of Texas Online: December 11, 2015. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  9. ^ Staff, Lynching in Texas. "Lynching of Joe Winters - May 20, 1922". Lynching In Texas. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  10. ^ Olien, Diana; Olien, Roger (2002). Oil in Texas, The Gusher Age, 1895-1945. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 212–213. ISBN 0292760566.
  11. ^ Michaux, Frank; Buck, E.O. (1936). "Conroe Oil Field, Montgomery County, Texas" (PDF). AAPG Bulletin Data Pages Archives. AAPG. pp. 736–773. Retrieved August 30, 2020.
  12. ^ OMB Bulletin 15-01, Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas. Office of Management and Budget: July 15, 2015. Page 35. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  13. ^ "Pilot Lands Small Plane On Conroe Street". KBTX. Associated Press. January 4, 2012. Retrieved on January 5, 2012.
  14. ^ 100 Plus Years of Growth: Conroe's City Limit Expansion 1904 to December 2013. City of Conroe, Texas. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  15. ^ a b Kuhles, Beth. Conroe studies future annexation options. Houston Chronicle: February 22, 2007. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  16. ^ Local Government Code Sec. 43.003: Authority of Home-Rule Municipality to Annex Area and Take Other Actions Regarding Boundaries. Texas State Legislature: Acts 1987, amended Acts 2017. Retrieved March 12. 2018.
  17. ^ a b c Mendoza, Jesse. Conroe expands city limits, tax base through annual annexation program. Community Impact Newspaper: June 8, 2016. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  18. ^ a b c City Limits through April 2022. City of Conroe, Texas. Retrieved December 29, 2022.
  19. ^ "Annexation Program". City of Conroe. Retrieved December 29, 2022.
  20. ^ Dominguez, Catherine (March 10, 2017). "Judge dismisses annexation suit against Conroe". The Courier. Conroe, Texas. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  21. ^ Green, Stephen (June 18, 2016). "Annexation remains hot topic in mayoral race". The Courier. Conroe, Texas. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  22. ^ Snyder, Mike (December 15, 2017). "Conroe council OKs controversial annexations". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  23. ^ Pineywoods Wildlife District. Texas Parks and Wildlife. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  24. ^ Pineywoods Wildlife Management. Texas Parks and Wildlife. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  25. ^ a b c "Flood Insurance Study: Montgomery County, Texas and incorporated areas volume 1 of 6". Federal Emergency Management Agency: September 23, 2008. Pages 6-8, 13. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  26. ^ W. Goodrich Jones State Forest. Texas A&M Forest Service. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  27. ^ "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  28. ^ Fletcher, Abner. The Present and Future of the W.G. Jones State Forest. Houston Public Media: April 11, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  29. ^ Marshall, John S. (May 31, 2017). "Jones State Forest offering a sanctuary from the city for nearly 100 years". The Courier. Conroe, Texas. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  30. ^ West Fork San Jacinto Watershed Greenprint. The Trust for Public Land: July 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  31. ^ a b History of Lake Conroe. San Jacinto River Authority. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  32. ^ Ground-Water resources of Montgomery County, Texas. Texas Water Development Board: November 1971. Pages 9-15. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  33. ^ Oden, Timothy D. Groundwater Environmental Tracer Data Collected from the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper Aquifers in Montgomery County and Adjacent Counties, Texas, 2008. United States Geological Survey: 2011. Pages 1-7. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  34. ^ a b Jordan, Jay R. Conroe loses rehearing motion on water lawsuit, could appeal to Texas Supreme Court. Houston Chronicle: March 7, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  35. ^ a b Mendoza, Jesse. Water dispute costs county residents millions of dollars. Community Impact Newspaper: July 25, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  36. ^ Schafler, Kelly (January 25, 2019). "UPDATED: Conroe City Council approves settlement agreement in lawsuit against Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District". Community Impact Newspaper. Retrieved October 17, 2020.
  37. ^ Dominguez, Catherine (June 30, 2020). "Judge dismisses San Jacinto River Authority suit against Conroe and Magnolia". The Courier of Montgomery County. Retrieved October 17, 2020.
  38. ^ Montgomery County Floodplain Viewer. Montgomery County, Texas, Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  39. ^ a b Zedaker, Hannah. Montgomery County recovers from historic flood conditions. Community Impact Newspaper: June 13, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  40. ^ a b c Schlafer, Kelly. Local officials to study flood mitigation in Montgomery County. Community Impact Newspaper: January 24, 2018. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  41. ^ a b Marshall, John S. (August 31, 2017). "Flooded-out Conroe-area residents returning to damaged homes". The Courier. Conroe, Texas. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  42. ^ Osborne, Ryan. "40 miles from downtown Houston, 'We thought the rain was going to come but not flood'" Star-Telegram: August 30, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  43. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  44. ^ "QuickFacts: Conroe city, Texas". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2022.
  45. ^ Lee, Renée C. "Conroe housing market going through the roof." Houston Chronicle. April 29, 2007. Retrieved on January 15, 2010.
  46. ^ "Explore Census Data". Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  47. ^ "About the Hispanic Population and its Origin". Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  48. ^ a b U.S. Census website United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  49. ^ a b Rhor, Monica, and John D. Harden. Conroe booming as America's fastest growing city. Houston Chronicle: May 26, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  50. ^ Mary Bowerman (May 25, 2017). "The Census Bureau shows the fastest-growing cities in the U.S. are ..." USA Today. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  51. ^ Mendoza, Jesse. Economic inequality challenges cities. Community Impact Newspaper: February 24, 2016. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  52. ^ Dawson, Jennifer. "Exxon Mobil campus 'clearly happening'." Houston Business Journal. Friday January 15, 2010. 2. Retrieved on January 16, 2010.
  53. ^ City of Conroe 2016 CAFR, page 138 Retrieved February 25, 2018
  54. ^ Hernandez, Sondra (May 10, 2017). "Crighton Theatre 'Crown Jewel of Conroe' still shines after 80-plus years". The Courier. Conroe, Texas. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
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