Confession inscriptions of Lydia and Phrygia are Roman-era Koine Greek religious steles from these historical regions of Anatolia (then part of Asia and Galatia provinces), dating mostly to the second and third centuries.
The new element that appears, the public confession of sin and the redemption through offerings (lytra), unknown to traditional Greek religion, has made scholars to name this social phenomenon as oriental. The religious thought and the use of vernacular Koine Greek, full of innovative orthography, syntax and grammar, suggests that they may also represent something at the root of religion in Phrygia and Lydia. Marijana Ricl has argued that the practice of confession is a reminiscence of Hittite religion. According to Schnabel E.J it was a counter-move prompted by the increasing success of the Christian missionaries. Indeed, beside the scheme of confession and redemption, the phraseology and terms are reminiscent of Greek New Testament: hamartia (sin), parakletos (advocate), doulos tou theou (servant of God), kyrios (master), basileus (king). Another point for discussion is the punishment of sexual transgressions, which further relates the inscriptions to Christianity and the concept of chastity in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, in contrast to the previous perception of sexuality inside the religion (Hieros gamos, Sacred prostitution, Aphrodite Pandemos).
Some indicating names or epithets of deities engaged in the inscriptions are: Men (Axiottenos, Artemidoros), Meter (mother), Zeus (Aithrios, Keraunios, Soter), Apollo, Hypsistos, Anaitis, Attis, Dionysos, Hades, Herakles, Sabazios, Batenos, Nemesis, Asclepius, Tyrannos, Basileus, Theos Strapton and Bronton, Hecate, and Artemis.
Ritual dialogue of Theodoros with the Gods (Lydia, 235/236 AD)Edit
|Koine Greek original text||Translation|
ἔτους τκʹ, μηνὸς Πανήμου βιʹ
According to George Petzl, a trial of sacred theatre did take place in the sanctuary; Theodoros was convicted and jailed. Zeus was impersonated by a priest. According to Ender Varinlioglu, phylake (jail) is used metaphorically. Blindness was the jail or punishment upon Theodoros in order to be saved from his licentious sexual activities.
Soterchos of Motella (Phrygia, 3rd century AD)Edit
|Koine Greek original text||Translation|
Aurelios Soterchos son of Demostratos
- Angels and Principalities: The Background, Meaning and Development of the Pauline Phrase hai archai kai hai exousiai A. Wesley Carr Page 56 ISBN 0-521-23429-8 (2005)
- Deutungen des Todes Jesu im neuen Testament edited by Jörg Frey, Jens Schröter Page 292 ISBN 3-16-148581-5 (2007)
- SEG 38:1237 Manisa Museum, fr. NE Lydia
- Sullan chronology, since 85 BC.Other inscriptions have Actian chronology, 31 BC
- (Koine Greek: pletorin from praetorium)
- rather than just unmarried (or the flutist). See monaulia in LSJ, it means either solo on the flute Archived 2009-12-02 at the Wayback Machine or celibacy Archived 2009-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
- a measure of corn, LSJ Archived 2009-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
- In original, synkletos the Greek word for the Roman senate
- The Greco-Roman East: politics, culture, society By Stephen Colvin Page 28 ISBN 0-521-82875-9 (2004)
- MAMA 4 283 Dionysopolis: Bahadinlar
- Attic epiorkos
- orchis, 'testicle'
- See kineô Archived 2009-12-02 at the Wayback Machine A.II.4 meaning
- chôrion, place inside a sanctuary here, or a landed holy property
- Hughes, Jessica. “Punishing Bodies: The Lydian and Phrygian ‘Propitiatory’ Stelai, Second–Third Centuries AD”. In: Votive Body Parts in Greek and Roman Religion. Cambridge Classical Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017. pp. 151–86. doi:10.1017/9781316662403.005.
- Divine Tyranny and Public Humiliation: A Suggestion for the Interpretation of the Lydian and Phrygian Confession Inscription Schnabel E.J
- Under the watchful eyes of the gods: divine justice in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor by Angelos Chaniotis
- Human Transgression – Divine Retribution A study of religious transgressions and punishments in Greek cultic regulations and Lydian-Phrygian reconciliation inscriptions by Aslak Rostad
- The curse of the law and the crisis in Galatia : reassessing the purpose of Galatians by Todd A Wilson
- Anatolia: Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor by Stephen Mitchell Volume I The Celts in Anatolia and the Impact of Roman Rule