Colma (Ohlone for "Springs")[5][6] is a small incorporated town in San Mateo County, California, United States, on the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area. The population was 1,507 at the 2020 census. The town was founded as a necropolis in 1924.[7]

Colma, California
Holy Cross Cemetery
Flag of Colma, California
Official seal of Colma, California
Motto: 
"It's great to be alive in Colma"
Location of Colma in San Mateo County, California
Location of Colma in San Mateo County, California
Colma, California is located in San Francisco
Colma, California
Colma, California
Location of Colma
Colma, California is located in San Francisco Bay Area
Colma, California
Colma, California
Colma, California (San Francisco Bay Area)
Colma, California is located in California
Colma, California
Colma, California
Colma, California (California)
Colma, California is located in the United States
Colma, California
Colma, California
Colma, California (the United States)
Coordinates: 37°40′44″N 122°27′20″W / 37.67889°N 122.45556°W / 37.67889; -122.45556
CountryUnited States
StateCalifornia
CountySan Mateo
Incorporated as "Lawndale"August 5, 1924[1]
Name changed to "Colma"November 17, 1941
Government
 • Mayor[2]John Goodwin
 • City Manager[3]Brian Dossey
Area
 • Total1.89 sq mi (4.90 km2)
 • Land1.89 sq mi (4.90 km2)
 • Water0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)  0%
Elevation
121 ft (37 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total1,507
 • Density796.93/sq mi (307.78/km2)
 United States Census Bureau
Time zoneUTC−8 (PST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP Code
94014
Area code650
FIPS code06-14736
GNIS feature ID1658303
Websitewww.colma.ca.gov

With most of Colma's land dedicated to cemeteries, the population of the dead—not specifically known but speculated to be around 1.5 million[8]—outnumbers that of the living by a ratio of nearly a thousand to one. This has led to Colma being called "the City of the Silent" and has given rise to a humorous motto, formerly featured on the city's website: "It's great to be alive in Colma".[7][9]

Etymology edit

The most commonly proposed origin of the name "Colma" is the Ohlone word mean "springs" or "many springs".[10][5][6]

There are several other proposed origins of Colma. Erwin Gudde's California Place Names states seven possible sources of the town's being called Colma:[11] William T. Coleman (a local landowner), Thomas Coleman (a local resident), misspelling of Colmar in France, misspelling of Colima in Mexico, a re-spelling of an ancient Uralic word meaning death, a reference to James Macpherson's Songs of Selma, and two Ohlone possibilities, one meaning "moon" and one meaning "springs".

Before 1872, Colma was designated as "Station" or "School House Station", the name of its post office in 1869.

History edit

The community of Colma was formed in the 19th century as a collection of homes and small businesses along El Camino Real and the adjacent San Francisco and San Jose Railroad line. Several churches, including Holy Angels Catholic Church, were founded in these early years. The community founded its own fire district, which serves the unincorporated area of Colma north of the town limits, as well as the area that became a town in 1924.

Heinrich (Henry) von Kempf moved his wholesale nursery here in the early part of the 20th century, from the land where the Palace of Fine Arts currently sits. The business was growing, and thus required more space for von Kempf's plants and trees. Von Kempf then began petitioning to turn the Colma community into an agricultural township. He succeeded and became the town of Colma's first treasurer.

In the early 20th century, Colma was the site of many major boxing events. Middleweight world champion Stanley Ketchel fought six bouts at the Mission Street Arena in Colma, including two world middleweight title bouts against Billy Papke and a world heavyweight title bout against Jack Johnson.[12]

A panoramic view of Colma, California, looking down from San Bruno Mountain

San Francisco cemetery relocations edit

Colma became the site for numerous cemeteries after San Francisco outlawed new interments within its city limits in 1900, then evicted most existing cemeteries in 1912. In the 1910s, many of the roads to Colma were not maintained.[13] Bodies were transported by street cars in San Francisco down Valencia Street in the Mission District; which resulted in many mortuaries and funeral homes in this location for quick access to Colma.[13] Approximately 150,000 bodies were moved between 1920 and 1941, at a cost of $10 per grave and marker. Many of the remains in Colma came from the Lone Mountain Cemetery complex. Those for whom no one paid the fee were reburied in mass graves, and the markers were recycled in various San Francisco public works.[14] Some examples include drain gutters at Buena Vista Park and bolstering breakwater near the St. Francis Yacht Club. They can be seen at low tide on Ocean Beach.[14] The completion of the relocation was delayed until after World War II. The main rail line between San Francisco and San Jose running through Colma had been bypassed by the Bayshore Cutoff, completed in 1907 and providing a route closer to the San Francisco Bay shoreline, and the former main line was repurposed as a branch line to move coffins to Colma. Decades later, the right-of-way for the branch line through Colma was purchased by BART for use in the San Francisco International Airport extension project.[14]

An early effort to incorporate in 1903 was condemned by the San Francisco Call as "a scheme whereby the town of Colma is to be made a plague spot of vice" to benefit gamblers and crooked politicians.[15] The Town of Lawndale was incorporated in 1924,[14][16] primarily at the behest of the cemetery owners with the cooperation of the handful of residents who lived closest to the cemeteries. The residential and business areas immediately to the north continued to be known as Colma. As another California city named Lawndale already existed, in Los Angeles County, the post office retained the Colma designation, and the town changed its name back to Colma in 1941.[14]

 
Aerial view of Colma, from the south; San Francisco is visible in the distance at upper right and I-280 runs north in the lower left corner. The prominent rectangular green space in the foreground is the western campus of Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, acquired in the early 1900s.

Notable interments edit

 
Selected locations in Colma, California 
  •  Cemeteries 
  •  Shopping/Retail 
  •  Transportation 
  •  Points of interest 

1
Colma (BART)
2
Japanese Cemetery
3
Woodlawn Memorial Park Cemetery
4
Eternal Home Cemetery
5
Italian Cemetery
6
Colma Historical Park and Community Center
7
Olivet Gardens (Mount Olivet)
8
Serbian Cemetery
9
280 Metro Center
10
Greenlawn Memorial Park and Greek Orthodox Memorial Park
11
Serramonte Boulevard / Serramonte Auto Row
12
Hills of Eternity Memorial Park and Home of Peace Cemetery
13
Serra Center
14
Cypress Lawn Memorial Park
15
Hoy Sun Ning Yung Cemetery and Chinese Christian Cemetery
16
Holy Cross Cemetery

Many, if not most, of the well-known people who died in San Francisco since the first cemeteries opened there have been buried or reburied in Colma, with an additional large number of such burials in Oakland's Mountain View Cemetery. Some notable people interred in Colma include:

Businesses edit

 
Aerial view of Colma, facing north; 280 Metro Center is in the lower center, adjacent to Woodlawn (to the north) and Greenlawn (to the east)

Originally, Colma's residents were primarily employed in occupations related to the many cemeteries in the town. Since the 1980s, however, Colma has become more diversified, and a variety of retail businesses and automobile dealerships has brought more sales tax revenue to the town government.[7][19] In 1986, 280 Metro Center opened for business in Colma; it is now recognized as the world's first power center.[20][21]

Cemeteries in Colma[22]
Name Image Founded Community Size Notes
Tung Sen ? Chinese ? These four cemeteries are within the city limits of Daly City, separated from the western campus of Cypress Lawn by Junipero Serra Boulevard.
Hoy Sun   ? Chinese ?
Chinese Christian   ? Chinese ?
Russian Sectarian ? Russian ?
Holy Cross   Jun 3, 1887 Roman Catholic ? Holy Cross Mausoleum, designed by John McQuarrie, is the resting site for the men who have served as Archbishop of San Francisco, including Joseph Sadoc Alemany, Patrick William Riordan, Edward Joseph Hanna, John Joseph Mitty, and Joseph Thomas McGucken.[22]: 63 
Home of Peace   Jan 1, 1889 Jewish 20 acres (8.1 ha) Occupies the northern half of the site
Hills of Eternity   20 acres (8.1 ha) Occupies the southern half of the site
Salem   Dec 20, 1891 17 acres (6.9 ha)
Cypress Lawn   1892 Non-sectarian 148 acres (60 ha) Split into two campuses straddling El Camino Real: the 47-acre (19 ha) eastern (1892) and the 101-acre (41 ha) western (1901).
Mount Olivet   1896 65 acres (26 ha) Renamed to Olivet Memorial Park. Acquired by Cypress Lawn in 2020.
Italian   1899 Italian 35 acres (14 ha)
Serbian   1901 Christian Orthodox 16 acres (6.5 ha)
Japanese   Jun 1901 Japanese 2 acres (0.81 ha)
Eternal Home   Jul 1901 Jewish 25 acres (10 ha)
Greenlawn   1903 Non-sectarian 47 acres (19 ha) Site purchased in 1903 by the directors of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows cemetery in San Francisco using allegedly embezzled funds, resulting in the disavowal of the site by the IOOF Grand Lodge.[22]: 113 
Woodlawn   Oct 29, 1904 Non-sectarian 92 acres (37 ha) Originally 47 acres (19 ha)
Sunset View   1907 Non-sectarian ? Paupers' burial site; closed in 1951.[23] Site now used for Cypress Hills Golf Course.[22]: 124 
Greek Orthodox   1935 Eastern Orthodox 8 acres (3.2 ha) Consecrated April 1936.[22]: 126 
Pets Rest   1947 Pet 5 acres (2.0 ha)
Hoy Sun   1988 Chinese 8 acres (3.2 ha) Acquired from Cypress Hills Golf Course when the course shrank from 18 to 9 holes.
Golden Hills   Feb 23, 1994 Chinese 14 acres (5.7 ha) Acquired from Cypress Hills Golf Course when the course shrank from 18 to 9 holes.

Geography and geology edit

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.9 sq mi (4.9 km2), all land. The town's 17 cemeteries comprise approximately 73% of the town's land area.[7] It borders Daly City (to the north and west, separated by Junipero Serra Boulevard), South San Francisco (to the south, separated by Arlington, Mission, and Lawndale), and San Bruno Mountain State Park (to the east).[24]

Colma is situated on the San Francisco Peninsula at the highest point of the Merced Valley, a gap between San Bruno Mountain and the northernmost foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountain Range.[25][26] The foothills and eastern flanks of the range are composed largely of poorly consolidated Pliocene-Quaternary freshwater and shallow marine sediments that include the Colma and Merced Formations, recent slope wash, ravine fill, colluvium, and alluvium. These surficial deposits unconformably overlay the much older Jurassic to Cretaceous-aged Franciscan Assemblage. The Junipero Serra Landfill, which closed in 1983 and extended approximately 135 ft (41 m) deep, was developed and reopened as the 260,000 sq ft (24,000 m2) mixed-use Metro Center.[27]

Colma Creek flows through the city as it makes its way from San Bruno Mountain to San Francisco Bay.

Transportation edit

BART has two stations serving Colma: Colma, at the northern border near Daly City, and South San Francisco, just across the southern border. In addition, SamTrans buses serve the city with public transportation.

There are three primary north-south roads for automobile and truck traffic through Colma; from west to east, they are Junipero Serra Boulevard, El Camino Real, and Hillside Boulevard. They are connected approximately through the center of Colma by Serramonte Boulevard.

Government edit

 
Colma Town Hall, at the intersection of El Camino Real and Serramonte Blvd.

In the California State Legislature, Colma is in the 11th Senate District, represented by Democrat Scott Wiener, and in the 19th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Phil Ting. In the United States House of Representatives, Colma is in California's 15th congressional district, represented by Democrat Kevin Mullin.[28]

Education edit

Colma has one private school, Holy Angels School, a Catholic school for preschool through 8th grade.[29]

Colma belongs to the Jefferson Elementary School District, which has two schools in Colma: Garden Village Elementary (grades K–5) and Benjamin Franklin Intermediate (grades 6–8). High school students typically attend Westmoor High School in the Jefferson Union High School District.

Demographics edit

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
1880188
1930369
1940354−4.1%
1950297−16.1%
196050068.4%
19705377.4%
1980395−26.4%
19901,103179.2%
20001,1918.0%
20101,79250.5%
20201,507−15.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[30]

Informally, as of 2006 Colma had "1,500 aboveground residents ... and 1.5 million underground".[7]

2010 edit

The 2010 United States Census[31] reported that Colma had a population of 1,792. The population density was 938.6 inhabitants per square mile (362.4/km2). The racial makeup of Colma was 620 (34.6%) White, 59 (3.3%) African American, 7 (0.4%) Native American, 619 (34.5%) Asian, 9 (0.5%) Pacific Islander, 366 (20.4%) from other races, and 112 (6.3%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 708 persons (39.5%).

The Census reported that 1,763 people (98.4% of the population) lived in households, 0 (0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 29 (1.6%) were institutionalized.

There were 564 households, out of which 217 (38.5%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 271 (48.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 110 (19.5%) had a female householder with no husband present, 42 (7.4%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 44 (7.8%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 8 (1.4%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 91 households (16.1%) were made up of individuals, and 31 (5.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.13. There were 423 families (75.0% of all households); the average family size was 3.45.

The population was spread out, with 390 people (21.8%) under the age of 18, 178 people (9.9%) aged 18 to 24, 532 people (29.7%) aged 25 to 44, 488 people (27.2%) aged 45 to 64, and 204 people (11.4%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males.

There were 586 housing units at an average density of 306.9 per square mile (118.5/km2), of which 224 (39.7%) were owner-occupied, and 340 (60.3%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.7%; the rental vacancy rate was 2.3%. 738 people (41.2% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,025 people (57.2%) lived in rental housing units.

2000 edit

In the census[32] of 2000, there were 1,191 people, 329 households, and 245 families residing in the town. The population density was 624.6 inhabitants per square mile (241.2/km2). There were 342 housing units at an average density of 179.4 per square mile (69.3/km2).

There were 329 households, out of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.1% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.5% were non-families. 17.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.47 and the average family size was 3.92.

In the town the population was spread out, with 24.7% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males.

The median income for a household in the town was US$58,750, and the median income for a family was US$60,556. Males had a median income of US$32,059 versus US$29,934 for females. The per capita income for the town was US$20,241. About 3.4% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.8% of those under age 18 and 3.7% of those age 65 or over.

In popular culture edit

  • Harold and Maude, (1971), a dark comedy about a death-obsessed young man and a vivacious older woman, filmed scenes at Holy Cross Cemetery and elsewhere on the Peninsula.[33]
  • Colma (1998), the fourth studio album released by guitarist Buckethead, makes reference to the town of Colma.
  • Alive in Necropolis (2008), a novel by Doug Dorst.
  • Colma: The Musical (2007) is an American independent film that was shot on location in Colma and Daly City.[34][35]

Further reading edit

  • A Second Final Rest: The History of San Francisco's Lost Cemeteries (2005) a documentary about the relocation of cemeteries from San Francisco to Colma.[36]
  • Colma: A Journey of Souls (2014) a documentary film about the history of Colma.[37]

References edit

  1. ^ "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on November 3, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
  2. ^ [1]. Colma.ca.gov. Retrieved on 2019-01-20.
  3. ^ City Manager Home. Colma.ca.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
  4. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 30, 2021.
  5. ^ a b City of Colma - History
  6. ^ a b Colma Historical Association - Newsletter #120
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Pogash, Carol (December 3, 2006). "Colma, Calif., Is a Town of 2.2 Square Miles, Most of It 6 Feet Deep". The New York Times. Retrieved February 13, 2011.
  8. ^ "Why are there so many dead in Colma? And so few living". kqed.org. Retrieved February 26, 2021.
  9. ^ Smookler, Michael (2007). Colma. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 9780738547275. Retrieved December 22, 2020.
  10. ^ "And Just How Are Things in Colma, Calif.? Awfully Quiet, Night and Day". New York Times. April 21, 1996. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
  11. ^ Gudde, Erwin G. California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names (4th ed.). University of California Press. p. 86.
  12. ^ "Stanley Ketchel - Boxer". Boxrec.com. October 15, 1910. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
  13. ^ a b Wells, Madeline (October 14, 2021). "'Sworn to secrecy': Ex-employees say The Chapel's ghost was real". SFGATE. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved October 14, 2021.
  14. ^ a b c d e Branch, John (February 5, 2016). "The Town of Colma, Where San Francisco's Dead Live". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  15. ^ "Blacklegs seek to make Town of Colma a plague spot of gambling hells". San Francisco Call. August 12, 1903. Retrieved September 6, 2023.
  16. ^ "Lawndale will become a city". Daily News Leader. San Mateo. August 2, 1924. Retrieved September 6, 2023.
  17. ^ a b c Roisman, Jon (November 6, 2014). "Local Jewish history comes to life at cemetery walk". JWeekly.com.
  18. ^ Roisman, Jon. "Local Jewish history comes to life at cemetery walk". J. The Jewish News of Northern California. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2014. Actors, many of them professional, portrayed a number of local Jewish luminaries, such as Levi Strauss, Alice B. Toklas and Joshua Abraham Norton, a late 1800s San Francisco celebrity better known as "Emperor Norton." [...] notable Jews buried there, including Julie Rosewald (America's first female cantor) and Josephine Earp (wife of famed lawman Wyatt Earp, who is buried at her side).
  19. ^ Boudreau, John (June 12, 1994). "Couldn't you just die? Necropolis USA: One town's underground economy". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  20. ^ Laird, Gordon (2009). The Price of a Bargain: The Quest for Cheap and the Death of Globalization. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. p. 68. ISBN 9781551993287. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  21. ^ Pacione, Michael (2009). Urban Geography: A Global Perspective (3rd ed.). Milton Park: Routledge. p. 249. ISBN 9780415462013. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  22. ^ a b c d e Svanevik, Michael; Burgett, Shirley (1995). City of Souls: San Francisco's Necropolis at Colma. San Francisco, California: Custom & Limited Editions. ISBN 1-881529-04-5.
  23. ^ Brabec, Russell R. (2015). "Sunset View Cemetery: Cemetery for the Paupers and the Indigent of San Francisco" (PDF). History Guild of Daly City/Colma, San Mateo County Genealogical Society. Retrieved September 1, 2023.
  24. ^ "Colma Boundary Map". Town of Colma. December 4, 2020. Retrieved September 1, 2023.
  25. ^ Colma Cardroom Project, Environmental Impact Report, Environmental Science Associates, prepared for the city of Colma (1993); IV.B. "Geology and Soils" Archived 2015-07-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ About the Mountain: Topography and Climate Archived 2015-07-25 at the Wayback Machine, San Bruno Mountain Watch (nd).
  27. ^ M.Papineau, B.George, J.Buxton et al., Environmental Impact Report for the Metro Center, Colma, California, Earth Metrics report 10062, prepared for the city of Colma and the California State Clearinghouse (1989)
  28. ^ "California's 15th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved January 24, 2023.
  29. ^ "About Us". Holy Angels School. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  30. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  31. ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Colma town". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  32. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  33. ^ "Harold and Maude Bay Area Filming Locations". Harold and Maude homepage. Archived from the original on September 15, 2019. Retrieved April 26, 2018. Bay Area Location: Holy Cross Cemetery on Old Mision[sic] Road in Colma.
  34. ^ Manohla Dargis (July 6, 2007). "Big Teenage Dreams, Small-Town Doldrums". The New York Times. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  35. ^ "Colma: The Musical". GreenRockSolid. July 5, 2007. Archived from the original on May 6, 2019. Retrieved July 8, 2007.
  36. ^ Bressler, Janice (July 3, 2018). "New film highlights history of Richmond's lost cemeteries". Richmond ReView / Sunset Beacon. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  37. ^ Livengood, Carolyn (October 30, 2014). "Veterans Day to be observed at Golden Gate National Cemetery". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved October 5, 2018.

External links edit