|Indian cobra (Naja naja) in a defensive posture|
Elapidae (with some exceptions)
All of the known cobras are venomous and many are capable of rearing upwards and producing a hood when threatened.
Snakes known as cobras
All members of the genus Naja, the "true" cobras, rear and produce hoods.
Other "cobra" genera and species are as follows:
- The rinkhals, or ring-necked spitting cobra, Hemachatus haemachatus, so called for its neck band, as well as its habit of rearing and spreading its hood when disturbed
- The king cobra, Ophiophagus hannah
- The two species of tree cobras, Goldie's tree cobra and black tree cobra
- The two species of shieldnose cobras, Cape coral snake and Aspidelaps scutatus:p.76
- The two species of black desert cobras, desert black snake and Walterinnesia morgani, neither of which rears or produces a hood:p.65
- The so-called American cobra, the eastern coral snake, which also does not rear or produce a hood:p.30
The false water cobra, Hydrodynastes gigas, is the only "cobra" that is not a member of the Elapidae. It does not rear, produces only a slight flattening of the neck, and is only mildly venomous.:p.53
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 613. .
- Two kinds of non-venomous snake, the hognose snakes and the striped keelback, also rear and produce hoods, but are not considered "cobras"; likewise, some venomous elapid snakes, such as the black mamba, are also capable of producing hoods but are not called "cobras".
- Wolfgang Bücherl; Eleanor E. Buckley; Venancio Deulofeu (17 September 2013). Venomous Animals and Their Venoms: Venomous Vertebrates. Elsevier. p. 492. ISBN 978-1-4832-6363-2.
- United States. Department of the Navy. Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (2013). Venomous Snakes of the World: A Manual for Use by U. S. Amphibious Forces. Skyhorse. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-62087-623-7.
- Mark O'Shea (20 February 2008). Venomous Snakes of the World. New Holland. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-84773-086-2.
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