Cleveland, England

Coordinates: 54°31′30″N 1°11′20″W / 54.525°N 1.189°W / 54.525; -1.189 Cleveland /ˈklvlənd/ is a geographic area in encompassing large parts Teesdale, England. Its name means "cliff-land", referring to its hilly southern areas, which rise to nearly 1,500 ft (460 m) and are in the North York Moors, that are visible for miles around.

Map of the North York Moors area with Cleveland and Cleveland Hills labelled

Historically, Cleveland was an area within the North Riding of Yorkshire and located entirely to the south of the River Tees. Its largest town was Guisborough, until the rise of Middlesbrough in the 19th century.

The southern parts of Redcar and Cleveland (including Skelton-in-Cleveland, Loftus and Brotton) are the only consistently represented Cleveland in parliment.

HeritageEdit

Cleveland has centuries-long association with the area, with the Dukedom of Cleveland first created in the 17th Century.

The Cleveland Hills, in the southern part of the district, were key suppliers of the ironstone that was essential to the running of the blast furnaces alongside the River Tees. Cleveland’s rich ore has created a significant industrial heritage arising from its central role in the 19th century iron boom that led to Middlesbrough growing from a hamlet into a major industrial town in only a matter of decades. Teesport is one of the United Kingdom's main ports, initially due to the iron boom, with between Middlesbrough and Redcar having other heavy industrial plants.

Name‘s local cultural usageEdit

GeographyEdit

 
Roseberry Topping, one of the most enduring symbols of ancient Cleveland.

The area is extremely varied geographically. The Tees estuary is highly industrialised and urbanised. Much of the remainder of the lowland parts of Cleveland is farmland. East Cleveland marks the northern end of the chain of cliffs that runs along the North Yorkshire Heritage Coast. South Cleveland is extremely hilly, forming the escarpment of the North York Moors. One of the best known symbols of Cleveland is the distinctive hill of Roseberry Topping, which overlooks Newton under Roseberry on the Great Ayton to Guisborough road. Its original roughly conical form was undercut by extensive mining, giving it a jagged appearance that many have thought reminiscent of the Matterhorn mountain.

Geographical featuresEdit

Towns and villagesEdit

 
Kirkleatham Free School of 1709, now Kirkleatham Old Hall Museum


Parliament representationEdit

UKEdit

Cleveland (1885-1974)Edit

From 1885-1974, Cleveland, a parliament constituency which was roughly the Langbaugh Wapentake. Langbaugh, as a place, was not the biggest in the area after the Industrial Revolution had expanded other towns around it (notably Middlesbrough). It included much of the Tees basin and much of the Cleveland Hills and covered the coast down including Whitby and the Whitby Rural District. This was counted as one of four divisions of the North Riding of Yorkshire, which was expanded into Durham’s historic county at the time.

Cleveland and Whitby (1973-1983)Edit

Cleveland and Whitby largely replaced the previous southern section of the Cleveland constituency. It was defined as covering the urban districts of Guisborough, Loftus, Saltburn and Marske by the Sea, Skelton and Brotton, Whitby, along with Whitby Rural District. Most of these districts later joined the 1974-1996 Cleveland county with Whitby and its district going to Scarborough.

Cleveland (1974-1996)Edit

On 1 April 1974, by the Local Government Act 1972, the constituency was incorporated as a non-metropolitan county, from the short-lived County Borough of Teesside, Hartlepool and Guisborough. This constituency later gained Loftus, Saltburn and Marske-by-the-Sea and Skelton and Brotton, along with parishes from Stokesley Rural District (but not Stokesley itself).[2] The post of Lord Lieutenant of Cleveland was abolished, with the area being split between the ceremonial counties of Durham and North Yorkshire.

Redcar and Cleveland (1996-present)Edit

On 1 April 1996, the Orders came into force for the County of Cleveland to be abolished with four unitary authorities created. The district of Langbaurgh-on-Tees was renamed Redcar and Cleveland, down to most of the former Cleveland and Whitby constituency being now in the borough and Langbaurgh now an anachronism.

EuropeEdit

Cleveland (1979-84)Edit

The seat consisted of the Westminster Parliament constituencies of Cleveland and Whitby, Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, Langbaurgh, Richmond (Yorks), Scarborough, Stockton-on-Tees and Thornaby. In 1984, almost all the seat became part of the Cleveland and Yorkshire North constituency.

Cleveland and Yorkshire North (1984-94)Edit

The Europeon constituency of Cleveland and Yorkshire North consisted of the Westminster Parliament constituencies of Hartlepool, Langbaurgh, Middlesbrough, Richmond (Yorks), Skipton and Ripon, Stockton North, and Stockton South.[3]

Cleveland and Richmond (1994-9)Edit

The constituency consisted of the Westminster Parliament constituencies of Hartlepool, Langbaurgh (then Redcar), Middlesbrough, Richmond (Yorks), Stockton North and Stockton South.[4]

Town twinningEdit

Cleveland is twinned with:

Unlike many towns and cities in North America, Cleveland in Ohio is not named after its English namesake.

TitlesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Royal Mail, Address Management Guide Edition 4, (2004)
  2. ^ "Cleveland County Council (Abolition) (Hansard, 17 June 1993)". api.parliament.uk. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  3. ^ "David Boothroyd's United Kingdom Election Results". Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  4. ^ "David Boothroyd's United Kingdom Election Results". Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  5. ^ "Interactive City Directory". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on 5 October 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2019.

External linksEdit