Christian atheism is a form of cultural Christianity and ethics system drawing its beliefs and practices from Jesus' life and teachings as recorded in the New Testament Gospels and other sources, whilst rejecting supernatural claims of Christianity.
Christian atheism takes many forms: some Christian atheists take a theological position in which the belief in the transcendent or interventionist God is rejected or absent in favor of finding God totally in the world (Thomas J. J. Altizer) while others follow Jesus in a godless world (William Hamilton). Hamilton's Christian atheism is similar to Jesuism.
- The assertion of the unreality of God for our age, including the understandings of God which have been a part of traditional Christian theology.
- The insistence upon coming to grips with contemporary culture as a necessary feature of responsible theological work.
- Varying degrees and forms of alienation from the church as it is now constituted.
- Recognition of the centrality of the person of Jesus in theological reflection.
We cannot identify anything which will count for or against the truth of our statements concerning 'God'.
The inference from these claims to the "either meaningless or misleading" conclusion is implicitly premised on the verificationist theory of meaning. Most Christian atheists believe God never existed, but there are a few who believe in the death of God literally. Thomas J. J. Altizer is a well-known Christian atheist known for his literal approach to the death of God. He often speaks of God's death as a redemptive event. In his book The Gospel of Christian Atheism, he says:
Every man today who is open to experience knows that God is absent, but only the Christian knows that God is dead, that the death of God is a final and irrevocable event and that God's death has actualized in our history a new and liberated humanity.
Dealing with cultureEdit
Theologians including Altizer and Lyas looked at the scientific, empirical culture of today and try to find religion's place in it. In Altizer's words:
No longer can faith and the world exist in mutual isolation…the radical Christian condemns all forms of faith that are disengaged with the world.
Christian atheists are united also in the belief that any satisfactory answer to these problems must be an answer that will make life tolerable in this world, here and now and which will direct attention to the social and other problems of this life.
Separation from the churchEdit
Thomas Altizer has said:
Altizer believed that orthodox Christianity no longer had any meaning to people because it did not discuss Christianity within the context of contemporary theology. Christian atheists want to be completely separated from most orthodox Christian beliefs and biblical traditions. Altizer states that a faith will not be completely pure if it is open to modern culture. This faith "can never identify itself with an ecclesiastical tradition or with a given doctrinal or ritual form". He goes on to say that faith cannot "have any final assurance as to what it means to be a Christian". Altizer said: "We must not, he says, seek for the sacred by saying 'no' to the radical profanity of our age, but by saying 'yes' to it". They see religions which withdraw from the world as moving away from truth. This is part of the reason why they see the existence of God as counter-progressive. Altizer wrote of God as the enemy to man because mankind could never reach its fullest potential while God existed. He went on to state that "to cling to the Christian God in our time is to evade the human situation of our century and to renounce the inevitable suffering which is its lot".
Centrality of JesusEdit
Although Jesus is still a central feature of Christian atheism, Hamilton said that to the Christian atheist, Jesus as an historical or supernatural figure is not the foundation of faith; instead, Jesus is a "place to be, a standpoint". Christian atheists look to Jesus as an example of what a Christian should be, but they do not see him as God, nor as the Son of God; merely as an influential rabbi.
Hamilton wrote that following Jesus means being "alongside the neighbor, being for him" and that to follow Jesus means to be human, to help other humans, and to further humankind.
Other Christian atheists such as Thomas Altizer preserve the divinity of Jesus, arguing that through him God negates God's transcendence of being.
In the Netherlands, 42% of the members of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands (PKN) are nontheists. Non-belief among clergymen is not always perceived as a problem. Some follow the tradition of "Christian non-realism", most famously expounded in the United Kingdom by Don Cupitt in the 1980s, which holds that God is a symbol or metaphor and that religious language is not matched by a transcendent reality. According to an investigation of 860 pastors in seven Dutch Protestant denominations, 1 in 6 clergy are either agnostic or atheist. In one of those denominations, the Remonstrant Brotherhood, the number of doubters was 42 percent. A minister of the PKN, Klaas Hendrikse has described God as "a word for experience, or human experience" and said that Jesus may have never existed. Hendrikse gained attention with his book published in November 2007 in which he said that it was not necessary to believe in God's existence in order to believe in God. The Dutch title of the book translates as Believing in a God Who Does Not Exist: Manifesto of An Atheist Pastor. Hendrikse writes in the book that "God is for me not a being but a word for what can happen between people. Someone says to you, for example, 'I will not abandon you', and then makes those words come true. It would be perfectly alright to call that [relationship] God". A General Synod found Hendrikse's views were widely shared among both clergy and church members. The February 3, 2010 decision to allow Hendrikse to continue working as a pastor followed the advice of a regional supervisory panel that the statements by Hendrikse "are not of sufficient weight to damage the foundations of the Church. The ideas of Hendrikse are theologically not new, and are in keeping with the liberal tradition that is an integral part of our church", the special panel concluded.
Catholic atheism is a belief in which the culture, traditions, rituals and norms of Catholicism are accepted, but the existence of God is rejected. It is illustrated in Miguel de Unamuno's novel San Manuel Bueno, Mártir (1930). According to research in 2007, only 27% of Catholics in the Netherlands considered themselves theist while 55% were ietsist or agnostic deist and 17% were agnostic or atheist. Many Dutch people still affiliate with the term "Catholic" and use it within certain traditions as a basis of their cultural identity, rather than as a religious identity. The vast majority of the Catholic population in the Netherlands is now largely irreligious in practice. However, a 2010 study failed to locate any atheist Catholic priests.
I am trying here to prevent anyone saying the really foolish thing that people often say about Him: 'I'm ready to accept Jesus as a great moral teacher, but I don't accept his claim to be God.' That is the one thing we must not say. A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher. He would either be a lunatic—on the level with the man who says he is a poached egg—or else he would be the Devil of Hell. You must make your choice. Either this man was, and is, the Son of God, or else a madman or something worse. You can shut him up for a fool, you can spit at him and kill him as a demon or you can fall at his feet and call him Lord and God, but let us not come with any patronising nonsense about his being a great human teacher. He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to. [...] Now it seems to me obvious that He was neither a lunatic nor a fiend: and consequently, however strange or terrifying or unlikely it may seem, I have to accept the view that He was and is God.
Lewis's argument, now known as Lewis's trilemma, has been criticized for, among other things, constituting a false trilemma, since it does not deal with other options (such as Jesus being mistaken, or simply mythical). Philosopher John Beversluis argues that Lewis "deprives his readers of numerous alternate interpretations of Jesus that carry with them no such odious implications".
- William Montgomery Brown (1855–1937): American Episcopal bishop, communist author and atheist activist. He described himself as a "Christian Atheist".
- Douglas Murray (1979): British author, journalist and political commentator. He is a former Anglican who believes Christianity to be an important influence on British and European culture.
- Jordan Peterson (1962), known for arguing that any avowed atheist who lives a moral life is not really an atheist, but actually religious (e.g., Judeo-Christian). He may or may not be a Christian atheist himself.
- Anton Rubinstein (1829–1894): Russian pianist, composer and conductor. Although he was raised as a Christian, Rubinstein later became a Christian atheist.
- Dan Savage (1964): American author, media pundit, journalist and activist for the LGBT community. While he has stated that he is now an atheist, he has said that he still identifies as "culturally Catholic".
- Gretta Vosper (1958): United Church of Canada minister who is an atheist.
- Alexander Lukashenko (1954): President of Belarus. Describes himself as an Orthodox atheist.
- Richard Dawkins (1941): Scientist and famous atheist. Said he is a cultural Anglican.
- George Santayana (1863–1952): Spanish-American philosopher, writer, and novelist. Although a life-long atheist he help Spanish Catholic culture in deep regard. He would describe himself as an "aesthetic Catholic."
- Asimov's Guide to the Bible
- Atheism in Christianity by Ernst Bloch
- Christian agnosticism
- Christian communism
- Christ myth theory
- Jefferson Bible
- Jewish atheism
- Lloyd Geering
- Luboš Motl
- Nontheist Friends
- Nontheistic religion
- Robert Jensen
- Robert M. Price
- Sea of Faith
- Thorkild Grosbøll
- Ogletree, Thomas. "professor at Yale University". Retrieved 6 April 2017.
- Ogletree, Thomas W. The Death of God Controversy. New York: Abingdon Press, 1966.
- Lyas, Colin. "On the Coherence of Christian Atheism." The Journal of the Royal Institute of Philosophy 45(171): 1970.
- Altizer, Thomas J. J. The Gospel of Christian Atheism. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1966.
- Altizer, Thomas J. J. and William Hamilton. Radical Theology and The Death of God. New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc.,1966.
- God in Nederland' (1996–2006), by Ronald Meester, G. Dekker, ISBN 9789025957407
- Pigott, Robert (5 August 2011). "Dutch rethink Christianity for a doubtful world". BBC News. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
- "Does Your Pastor Believe in God?". albertmohler.com.
- Humphrey Taylor (October 15, 2003). "While Most Americans Believe in God, Only 36% Attend a Religious Service Once a Month or More Often" (PDF). The Harris Poll #59. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 6, 2010.
- Dennett, Daniel; LaScola, Linda (2010). "Preachers Who Are Not Believers" (PDF). Evolutionary Psychology. 1 (8): 122–150. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- John Beversluis, C.S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985), p. 56.
- "U.S. Heresy Trial. A "Christian Atheist."". The Times (43667). 2 June 1924. p. 13. col C.
- "Studying Islam has made me an atheist". December 29, 2008.
- "This House Believes Religion Has No Place In The 21st Century". The Cambridge Union Society. 31 January 2013.
- "On the Maintenance of Civilization". November 22, 2015.
- Holloway, Richard (7 May 2017). "Sunday Morning With..." BBC Radio Scotland. Archived from the original on 7 May 2017.
- "The Peculiar Opacity of Jordan Peterson's Religious Views". Quillette. 2018-07-23. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- Taylor, 280.
- "If Osama bin Laden were in charge, he would slit my throat; my God, I'm an atheist, a hedonist, and a faggot." Skipping Towards Gomorrah: The Seven Deadly Sins and the Pursuit of Happiness in America Dan Savage, Plume, 2002, p. 258.
- Anderson-Minshall, Diane (September 13, 2005). "Interview with Dan Savage". AfterElton.com.
- Andrew-Gee, Eric (16 March 2015). "Atheist minister praises the glory of good at Scarborough church". Toronto Star.
Vosper herself is a bit heterodox on the question of Christ. Asked if she believes that Jesus was the son of God, she said, ‘I don’t think Jesus was.’ That is, she doesn’t think He existed at all.
- Lovely, Edward W. (Sep 28, 2012). George Santayana's Philosophy of Religion: His Roman Catholic Influences and Phenomenology. Lexington Books. pp. 1, 204–206.
- "Santayana playfully called himself 'a Catholic atheist,' but in spite of the fact that he deliberately immersed himself in the stream of Catholic religious life, he never took the sacraments. He neither literally regarded himself as a Catholic nor did Catholics regard him as a Catholic." Empiricism, Theoretical Constructs, and God, by Kai Nielsen, The Journal of Religion, Vol. 54, No. 3 (Jul., 1974), pp. 199-217 (p. 205), published by The University of Chicago Press.
- Soury, M. Joles (1910). Un athée catholique. E. Vitte. ASIN B001BQPY7G.
- Altizer, Thomas J. J. (2002). The New Gospel of Christian Atheism. The Davies Group. ISBN 1-888570-65-2.
- Hamilton, William, A Quest for the Post-Historical Jesus, (London, New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 1994). ISBN 978-0-8264-0641-5.