Chadayamangalam

Chadayamangalam is a village located in Kollam District of southern India; Kerala. It is located along the Ithikkara river and the MC road that passes across the major urban locations of Kerala. It acts as centre for Chadayamangalam block panchayat, gram panchayat and assembly constituency. It hosts numerous government institutions including hospitals, schools and police station. Chadayamngalam is well noticed for newly constructed Jatayu Earth’s Center, which is a tourism centre in the town with the world’s largest bird sculpture.[1][2].The place is also referred to as Jatayumangalam.[3]

Rock cut temple, Kottukkal

Chadayamangalam
Jadayumangalam
Town
Jatayu Rock
Chadayamangalam is located in Kerala
Chadayamangalam
Chadayamangalam
Location in Kerala, India
Chadayamangalam is located in India
Chadayamangalam
Chadayamangalam
Chadayamangalam (India)
Coordinates: 8°50′32″N 76°51′52″E / 8.8421200°N 76.864440°E / 8.8421200; 76.864440Coordinates: 8°50′32″N 76°51′52″E / 8.8421200°N 76.864440°E / 8.8421200; 76.864440
Country India
StateKerala
DistrictKollam
Government
 • BodyNagar Palika
Population
 (2001)
 • Total22,213
Languages
 • OfficialMalayalam, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
691534
Telephone code0474
Vehicle registrationKL-82

DetailsEdit

Chadayamangalam is 37.5 km away from the City of Kollam and 43 km away from the capital city of the state, Thiruvananthapuram. The town is located Kilimanoor and Kottarakara, 14 km away from Kilimanoor and 21 km from Kottarakara. It is situated on the southeast side of Kottarakkara Taluk. Population is of 22,213. Panchayat includes Chithra, Kadakkal, Chadayamangalam, Ittiva, Velinalloor, Elamadu & Nilamel.

Historical BackgroundEdit

The origins of the town is traced by historians to at least 8th-9th century AD. The Ay dynasty which acted as buffer between Pandya and Chera dynasty mainly shifting between independent rule and Pandyan overlordship.The conquest of Ay Kingdom in 765 CE by Pandya king Jatila Paranthaka/Nedum Chadayan Varaguna I (r. 765–815 AD) and sack of port Vizhinjam by defeating the Vel chieftain (the Vel Mannan, who might have been related to the Ay family) possession of the Ay-Vel country ("the fertile country along with its magnificent treasures") (Madras Museum Plates of Jatila Parantaka, 17th year).[4][5] This event is also remembered in the Velvikkudi plates (3rd regnal year, Nedum Chadayan) as "the suppression of the rebellious Ay-Vel.[6] The Pandya king "Maran Chadayan" Jatila Paranthaka destroyed a fort at Aruviyoor (Aruvikkarai near Thalakulam) by defeating Chadayan Karunanthan of "Malai Nadu" in 788 AD (23rd year, Kalukumalai inscription).[7] In 792 AD (27th year, Jatila Paranthaka) the Chera warriors (the Cheramanar Padai) are seen fighting for a fort at Vizhinjam and at Karaikkotta (Karaikkodu near Thalakulam) against a commander of Maran Chadayan (Trivandrum Museum Inscription of Maran Chadayan).[8]

This historical evidences points to existing Ay/Vel kings with name Chadayan (Maran Chadayan) along with the invader of the kingdom 'Nedum Chadayan' also holding a similar name. What makes this relatable to the town of Chadayamangalam is the presence of the Kottukal rock cut temple located just inside 4 km from the town center.[9] The temple was built around 8th-9th century according to archeological sources and follows the Pandyan/Ay style of architecture pronounced in other rock temples in southern Tamil Nadu and Kerala. A similar temple can be seen in Vizinjam, the capital of Ay Kingdom dated to the 8th century. Even though there are huge similarities to the Pandyan rock cut temples built at the same time in core Pandyan territory, the possibility of Ay kings to have adopted the architecture cannot be left out.

This ambiguity is further strengthened as it was time of Pandyan conquest into the Ay kingdom (Pandyans continued to occupy the southern portions around Vizinjam till the next century while northern portions detached away to form Venad [10]) and the closest town to Chadayamangalam is Ayur, which loosely translates to the town/village/place of the Ay in colloquial Malayalam and Tamil. So all this shines light on the place having a Pandyan or/and Ay patronage in antiquity with a name that derived from the name of ruler of the same area.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Jatayu Nature Park Website". Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  2. ^ "Kerala park to welcome visitors in Jan - Khaleej Times". Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  3. ^ Vn, Aswin (20 December 2017). "Jatayu sculpture: A myth comes alive". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  4. ^ Narayanan, M. G. S (2013). Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks. pp. 93–94.
  5. ^ Ganesh, K. N. (1987). Agrarian Relations and Political Authority in Medieval Travancore (A. D. 1300-1750). Doctoral Thesis. Jawaharlal Nehru University. pp. 22–25.
  6. ^ Narayanan, M. G. S (2013). Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks. pp. 93–94.
  7. ^ Narayanan, M.G.S (2013). Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks. p. 106.
  8. ^ Narayanan, M.G.S (2013). Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks. p. 75.
  9. ^ "Kottukkal Rock Cut Temple | Temples protected by Department of Archaeology | Protected Monuments".
  10. ^ Narayanan, M.G.S (2013). Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks. p. 97.