Centrum (multivitamin)

Centrum is a brand of multivitamins produced by GlaxoSmithKline, originally Pfizer (formerly Wyeth).[1]

Centrum
Centrum logo (2021).jpg
Product typeMultivitamins
OwnerGlaxoSmithKline
CountryUnited States
Introduced1978; 44 years ago (1978)
Previous owners
Websitewww.centrum.com
Centrum multivitamins in Australasian packaging

Physicians' Health Study IIEdit

In 2012, the Physicians' Health Study II (PHS-II) found that participants who took a Centrum-brand multivitamin each day for an average of 11 years had no change in cancer mortality or cardiovascular disease mortality compared to the placebo group. The authors did find a slight reduction in cancer incidences, although this conclusion was questioned in the Journal of the American Medical Association.[2]

On October 17, 2012, researchers reported on a double-blind study of 14,641 male U.S. physicians initially aged 50 years or older (mean age of 64.3, standard deviation 9.2 years), that began in 1997 with treatment and follow-up through June 1, 2011. They compared total cancer (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) for participants taking a daily multivitamin (Centrum Silver by Pfizer) versus placebo. Compared with placebo, men taking a daily multivitamin had a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of total cancer, with a hazard ratio (HR) = 0.92 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-0.998; P = .04). No statistically significant effects were found for any specific cancers or cancer mortality. The 95% CI of the hazard ratio implied a benefit of between 14% and .2% over placebo. In absolute terms the difference was 1.3 cancer diagnoses, per 1000 years of life (18.3-17 events, respectively). The median follow up time was 11.2 years.[3] The paper's co-principal investigator, Dr. J. Michael Gaziano, a cardiologist, was quoted by The New York Times as saying "it certainly appears there is a modest reduction in the risk of cancer from a typical multivitamin."[4] The study was also featured in The Wall Street Journal on October 17, 2012.[5]

An editorial in the same issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), reflecting the opinion of JAMA, was dismissive of the report on several counts. First, they said, "it seems unlikely that a common characteristic across all diseases included under this wide category of cancer would be a protective effect from multivitamins", suggesting if no specific cancer was effected, why would general cancer risk be so affected. Second, they questioned the study's abilities to deliver on the question of whether a multivitamin would be protective in a well-nourished population (Bayesian probability) stating: "The plausibility of a protective effect is reduced by the absence of a clear path through which 30 different vitamins and minerals would cause a decline in the risk of multiple cancers and, especially, by the negative pattern of prior results." In addition the investigators observed no difference in effect whether the study participants were or were not adherent to the multivitamin intervention, which diminishes the dose–response relationship.[2]

The editorial was critical of the statistical multiplicity (multiple comparisons): the complete planned analysis of the primary and secondary end points in the PHS II study would entail 28 tests of association; each of which has "some possibility of yielding a statistically significant result by chance alone, even when there is no true treatment effect. [...] when this finding is considered in the context of the number of already completed and planned analyses of the same study, the strength of the inference is weaker, because the likelihood of a randomly occurring finding [...] is much greater." They concluded that any of the conventional P value corrections for multiple comparisons would eliminate the apparent "statistical significance" of the results.[2]

From the same double-blind study, they found that taking a daily multivitamin did not have any effect in reducing heart attacks and other major cardiovascular events, MI, stroke, and CVD mortality.[6]

ContainsEdit

Below is an incomplete list of the nutritional facts for each type of Centrum brand vitamin.

Centrum MensEdit

Centrum Mens - Supplement Facts[7] Serving Size = 1 Tablet
Vitamin micrograms (mcg) milligrams (mg) grams (g) Daily Value (%)
Vitamin A 1,050 1.05 0.00105 117 (29% as β-Carotene)
Vitamin C 90,000 90 0.09 100
Vitamin D3 25 0.025 0.000025 125
Vitamin E 20,300 20.3 0.0203 135
Vitamin K 60 0.060 0.000006 50
Thiamin 1,200 1.2 0.0012 100
Riboflavin 1,300 1.3 0.0013 100
Niacin 16,000 16 0.016 100
Vitamin B6 2,000 2 0.002 118
Folate 333 0.333 0.000333 83
Vitamin B12 6 0.006 0.00006 250
Biotin 40 0.04 0.0004 133
Pantothenic Acid 15,000 15 0.015 300
Calcium 210,000 210 0.21 16
Iron 8,000 8 0.008 44
Phosphorus 20,000 20 0.02 2
Iodine 150 0.15 0.00015 100
Magnesium 100,000 100 0.1 24
Zinc 11,000 11 0.01 100
Selenium 100 0.1 0.0001 182
Copper 900 0.9 0.0009 100
Manganese 2,300 2.3 0.0023 100
Chromium 35 0.035 0.000035 100
Molybdenum 50 0.05 0.00005 111
Chloride 7,2000 72 0.072 3
Potassium 8,000 80 0.08 2
Lycopene 600 0.6 0.0006 NE

NE = Not Established

Centrum WomensEdit

Centrum Womens - Supplement Facts[8] Serving Size = 1 Tablet
Vitamin micrograms (mcg) milligrams (mg) grams (g) Daily Value (%)
Vitamin A 1,050 1.05 0.00105 117 (29% as β-Carotene)
Vitamin C 75,000 75 0.075 83
Vitamin D3 25 0.025 0.000025 125
Vitamin E 15,800 15.8 0.0203 105
Vitamin K 50 0.050 0.000005 42
Thiamin 1,100 1.1 0.0011 92
Riboflavin 1,100 1.1 0.0011 85
Niacin 14,000 14 0.014 88
Vitamin B6 2,000 2 0.002 118
Folate 667 0.667 0.000667 167
Vitamin B12 6 0.006 0.00006 250
Biotin 40 0.04 0.0004 133
Pantothenic Acid 15,000 15 0.015 300
Calcium 200,000 200 0.20 15
Iron 18,000 18 0.018 100
Phosphorus 20,000 20 0.02 2
Iodine 150 0.15 0.00015 100
Magnesium 100,000 100 0.1 24
Zinc 8,000 8 0.08 24
Selenium 18 0.018 0.0000018 33
Copper 00 0.5 0.0005 56
Manganese 1,800 1.8 0.0018 78
Chromium 32 0.032 0.000032 91
Molybdenum 50 0.05 0.00005 111
Chloride 7,2000 72 0.072 3
Potassium 8,000 80 0.08 2

Centrum AdultsEdit

Centrum Adults - Supplement Facts[9] Serving Size = 1 Tablet
Vitamin micrograms (mcg) milligrams (mg) grams (g) Daily Value (%)
Vitamin A 1,050 1.05 0.00105 117 (29% as β-Carotene)
Vitamin C 60,000 60 0.06 67
Vitamin D3 25 0.025 0.000025 125
Vitamin E 13,500 13.5 0.0135 90
Vitamin K 25 0.025 0.0000025 21
Thiamin 1,500 1.5 0.0015 125
Riboflavin 1,700 1.7 0.0017 100
Niacin 20,000 20 0.020 125
Vitamin B6 2,000 2 0.002 118
Folate 667 0.667 0.000667 167
Vitamin B12 6 0.006 0.00006 250
Biotin 30 0.03 0.0003 100
Pantothenic Acid 10,000 10 0.010 200
Calcium 200,000 200 0.20 15
Iron 18,000 18 0.0018 100
Phosphorus 20,000 20 0.02 2
Iodine 150 0.15 0.00015 100
Magnesium 50,000 50 0.050 12
Zinc 11,000 11 0.01 100
Selenium 55 0.055 0.000055 100
Copper 500 0.5 0.0005 56
Manganese 2,300 2.3 0.0023 100
Chromium 35 0.035 0.000035 100
Molybdenum 45 0.045 0.000045 100
Chloride 7,2000 72 0.072 3
Potassium 8,000 80 0.08 2

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Wyeth sued by teachers group over Centrum ads". National Post. 2003-09-18. p. 2.
  2. ^ a b c Bach, Peter B.; Lewis, Roger J. (14 November 2012). "Multiplicities in the Assessment of Multiple Vitamins Is It Too Soon to Tell Men That Vitamins Prevent Cancer?". The Journal of the American Medical Association. 308 (18): 1916–1917. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.53273. PMID 23150011.
  3. ^ Gaziano, J. Michael; Sesso, Howard D.; Christen, William G.; Bubes, Vadim; Smith, Joanne P.; MacFadyen, Jean; Schvartz, Miriam; Manson, JoAnn E.; Glynn, Robert J.; Buring, Julie E. (October 17, 2012). "Multivitamins in the Prevention of Cancer in Men - The Physicians' Health Study II Randomized Controlled Trial". JAMA. 308 (18): 1871–80. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.14641. PMC 3517179. PMID 23162860.
  4. ^ Rabin, Roni Caryn (October 17, 2012). "Daily Multivitamin May Reduce Cancer Risk, Clinical Trial Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
  5. ^ Winslow, Ron (18 October 2012). "Multivitamin Cuts Cancer Risk, Large Study Finds". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  6. ^ Sesso, Howard D.; Christen, William G.; Bubes, Vadim; Smith, Joanne P.; MacFadyen, Jean; Schvartz, Miriam; Manson, JoAnn E.; Glynn, Robert J.; Buring, Julie E.; Gaziano, J. Michael (November 7, 2012). "Multivitamins in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Men - The Physicians' Health Study II Randomized Controlled Trial". JAMA. 308 (17): 1751–60. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.14805. PMC 3501249. PMID 23117775.
  7. ^ https://www.centrum.com/content/dam/cf-consumer-healthcare/bp-wellness-centrum/en_US/pdf/lbl-00000770-web-ready-centrum-men-tablets-(version-2).pdf[bare URL PDF]
  8. ^ https://www.centrum.com/content/dam/cf-consumer-healthcare/bp-wellness-centrum/en_US/pdf/lbl-00000773-web-ready-centrum-women-(version-2).pdf[bare URL PDF]
  9. ^ https://www.centrum.com/content/dam/cf-consumer-healthcare/bp-wellness-centrum/en_US/pdf/lbl-00000767-web-ready-centrum-adults-(version-2).pdf[bare URL PDF]

External linksEdit