Camadevi (also spelled Jamadevi; IPA: [tʃaːmaˈdeːʋiː]; Pali: Cāmadevī; Thai: จามเทวี, RTGSChammathewi, Mon: စာမ္မာဒေဝဳ, IPA: [t͡ɕaːm.má.tʰeː.wiː]; 7th-century – 8th-century) was the first monarch and Queen of Hariphunchai (Pali: Haribhuñjaya), which was an ancient Kingdom in the Northern part of nowadays Thailand before its united with the Kingdom of Sukhothai, the first Thai Kingdom.

Queen of Hariphunchai
Queen Camadevi's Monument in Lamphun
Queen of Hariphunchai
Reign662-669 (7 years), or 662-679 (17 years), or 659-688 (29 years)
PredecessorKing Tripop
SuccessorKing Hanayos
Born623 or 633
Kingdom of Lavo
Died715 (age 91-92), or 731 (age 97-98)
Kingdom of Hariphunchai
SpousePhraya Kanwandis,[1] or Prince Ramrat
DynastyChamadevi Dynasty
FatherKing Chakkrawat (King Chakkrawadiraj),[2][3] or Inta, Nong Duu villager[4]

Most records of Camadevi mention her life period differently. For example: A book called Chinnakanmalipakon said that she reigned in 662 for 7 years; Manit Wallipodom's research mentioned that she was born in 623, reigned in 662 for 17 years and died in 715 at the age of 92; and The legend of Camadevi translated and edited by Suttavari Suwannapat mentioned that she was born in 633, reigned in 659 up til 688 and died in 731.[5]

Early life edit

As written in the Legend of Cāmadevivaṃsa, it was recorded that she was a scion of the ruler of Lavo Kingdom. But according to the mythology, people believe she was a daughter of a wealthy man named Inta, who lived in Nong Duu village, which is in Pasang district of Lamphun at the present time. When she turned 3 months, she was grabbed and taken away by a giant bird. The bird flew over Doi Suthep and gave the young baby to a hermit named Suthewa Rusi. He took good care of her and named her Vi.[6]

Vi grew up well-educated with Suthewa Rusi. As Vi turned 13 years old, he prophesied her destiny and found out that she had a chance to be the ruler of a great kingdom in the future. He built a raft and sent her away to Lavo because it was the most prosperous kingdom at that time. It took months for the raft to reach Lavo Kingdom. As the raft reached the kingdom, people were very amazed by the incident. The King and the queen were very pleased about the girl's arrival. They kept her and gave her a new name, which was Camadevi.[7]

Camadevi grew up and lived comfortably in the royal court of Lavo Kingdom. After the ruler and his wife were informed by the fortuneteller that this girl had glory to become the powerful ruler of a great kingdom and would also marry a great man, they raised Camadevi position to be the Princess of Lavo and arranged a coronation for her when she was 14 years old.[6]

Marriage edit

A marriage was arranged for Camadevi, as she turned 20. She was supposed to marry Ramrat, a prince from the neighboring Kingdom, Ramburi. As she was well known for her beauty, another prince from a Mon kingdom asked the King of Lavo for permission to marry her but was rejected. He felt enraged and decided to start a war with Lavo Kingdom to win Camadevi.[8]

Camadevi chose to lead the army herself. She gained allies from neighboring kingdoms and could win the army. Her victory was admired and celebrated by the people but Camadevi was sorrowful about all the lives lost in this war, so she gave an order to build a temple on the battleground devoted to the deceased.[7]

According to the Legend of Cāmadevivaṃsa, the war took place in 653. After the situation was settled, the marriage was arranged 2 years later.[7]

Ruling Haripunchai edit

Around 659, Suthewa Rusi came to Lavo to ask Camadevi take over the new kingdom, Haripunchai, which he and his friend had established. However, the story was recorded differently in the Legend of Cāmadevivaṃsa. It was written that Prince Ramrat was ordained at that time. Since her husband was not with her, the invitation was sent from Haripunchai, asking her to be in charge. According to the mythology, she accepted the offer because the citizens were in trouble and that the city needed a leader. She also wanted to repay Suthewa Rusi for his kindness for raising her when she was young.[8]

It took her 7 months to reach Haripunchai by boat. After arriving, Camadevi was crowned to be the ruler of the Haripunchai. She was already pregnant before leaving Lavo and gave birth to 2 sons 7 days after the coronation. Her first son was named Mahantayot and her second son Anantayot.[7]

Death edit

Suwan-Chang-Kot-Chedi at Wat Camadevi in Lamphun. It is believed that her bones are contained here.

Camadevi reigned until 688 before Hanayos took over. She left her role in the government and changed to preserve Buddhism instead when she turned 60. She died in 731 when she was 89 years old.

After her death, Hanayos arranged a funeral for her for 7 days. Her bones were collected and contained in the Suwan-Chang-Kot-Chedi at Wat Camadevi in Lamphun after the cremation.[7]

Monument edit

Camadevi's statue is located in Naimueang Sub-district, Lamphun province. It is situated about 1 km from the city hall near the Nongdork public garden. The opening ceremony of the monument took place on October 2, 1982, and was inaugurated by Maha Vajiralongkorn Bodindradebayavarangkun.[9]

References edit

  1. ^ วรวิทย์ วงษ์สุวรรณ. ที่นี่เมืองลพบุรี. สระบุรี:ปากเพรียวการช่าง, 2545. หน้า 39
  2. ^ "พระนางจามเทวี ปฐมกษัตริย์แห่งอาณาจักรหริภุญไชย". Archived from the original on 2010-02-18. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  3. ^ พระนางจามเทวี
  4. ^ "ประวัติย่อพระนามจามเทวี". Archived from the original on 1 June 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  5. ^ บุคคลสำคัญทางประวัติศาสตร์ของจังหวัดลำพูน พระนางจามเทวี
  6. ^ a b พระนางจามเทวี ปฐมกษัตริย์แห่งอาณาจักรหริภุญไชย
  7. ^ a b c d e Kitti Wattanamahat. (2001).จามเทวี จอมนางหริภุญชัย.Bangkok: Matichon Publishing
  8. ^ a b Donald K. Swearer & Sommai Premchit, (1998), Legend of Queen Cama. New York: State University of New York Pressย
  9. ^ Statue of Queen Chamadevi. Retrieved October 17, 2017 from
House of Chamadevi
Born:  ? Died:  ?
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Queen of Haripunjaya
Succeeded by