Calotes is a genus of lizards in the draconine clade of the family Agamidae. The genus contains 25 species. Some species are known as forest lizards, others as "bloodsuckers" due to their red heads, and yet others (namely C. versicolor) as garden lizards.
|Calotes versicolor, male, |
Oriental garden lizard
25 species, see here
Species in the genus Calotes are native to South Asia, southern China, mainland Southeast Asia and Ambon. Additionally, C. versicolor has been introduced to Florida (USA), Borneo, Sulawesi, the Seychelles, Mauritius and Oman. The greatest species richness of the genus is from the Western Ghats, northeast India, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
Calotes is distinguished from related genera in having uniform-sized dorsal scales, and lacking a fold of skin extending between the cheek and shoulder, and in having proportionately stronger limbs than Pseudocalotes. Compared to Bronchocela, Calotes have a proportionately shorter tail and limbs. Calotes as we know it today was classified by Moody (1980) prior to which all of the above-mentioned genera were included in this genus.
The genus Calotes is still a heterogeneous group that may be divided into the C. versicolor and C. liocephalus groups. The former occurs through most of South Asia and further east. All species in this group have their dorsal and lateral scales directed upward. The latter is restricted to the southern Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. All species in this group have their scales directed back, or up and down, or down only. Whether further splitting is necessary or whether the groups constitute subgenera of a monophyletic Calotes remains to be studied.
- Calotes bachae Hartmann et al., 2013
- Calotes bhutanensis Biswas, 1975
- Calotes calotes (Linnaeus, 1758) – common green forest lizard
- Calotes ceylonensis (F. Müller, 1887) – painted-lip lizard, Ceylon bloodsucker
- Calotes chincollium Vindum, 2003
- Calotes desilvai Bahir & Maduwage, 2005 - Morningside lizard, Ceylon black-band whistling lizard
- Calotes emma Gray, 1845 – Emma Gray's forest lizard, forest crested lizard
- Calotes emma alticristatus K.P. Schmidt, 1925
- Calotes emma emma Gray, 1845
- Calotes grandisquamis Günther, 1864 – large-scaled forest lizard
- Calotes htunwini Zug & Vindum, 2006
- Calotes irawadi Zug, Brown, Schulte & Vindum, 2006
- Calotes jerdoni Günther, 1870 – Jerdon's forest lizard
- Calotes liocephalus Günther, 1872 – spineless forest lizard, crestless lizard, lionhead agama
- Calotes liolepis (Boulenger, 1885) – whistling lizard, Sri Lanka agama
- Calotes manamendrai (Amarasinghe & Karunarathna, 2014) – Manamendra-Arachchi's whistling lizard
- Calotes maria Gray, 1845 – Khasi Hills forest lizard
- Calotes medogensis (Zhao & Li, 1984) – Medog bloodsucker
- Calotes minor (Hardwicke & Gray, 1827) – Hardwicke's bloodsucker
- Calotes mystaceus (A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1837) – Indo-Chinese forest lizard, blue-crested lizard
- Calotes nemoricola Jerdon, 1853 – Nilgiri forest lizard
- Calotes nigrilabris (W. Peters, 1860) – black-cheek lizard
- Calotes nigriplicatus Hallermann, 2000
- Calotes paulus (Smith, 1935) – small forest lizard
- Calotes pethiyagodai (Amarasinghe, Karunarathna & Hallermann, 2014)
- Calotes versicolor (Daudin, 1802) – Oriental garden lizard, changeable lizard, eastern garden lizard
- Calotes zolaiking Giri, Chaitanya, Mahony, Lalrounga, Lalrinchhana, Das, Sarkar, Karanth, & Deepak, 2019 – Mizoram montane forest lizard
- Monilesaurus ellioti Günther, 1864 – Elliot's forest lizard
- Monilesaurus rouxii Duméril & Bibron, 1837 – Roux's forest lizard, Roux's forest Calotes
A female Oriental garden lizard, Calotes versicolor.
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- HALLERMANN J, BÖHME W. 2000. A review of the genus Pseudocalotes (Squamata: Agamidae), with description of a new species from West Malaysia. Amphibia-Reptilia 21: 193–210.
- HALLERMANN J. 2005. A taxonomic review of the genus Bronchocela (Squamata: Agamidae), with description of a new species from Vietnam. Russian Journal of Herpetology 12 (3): 167–182.
- MOODY SM. 1980. Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeographical relationships of the genera in the family Agamidae (Reptilia: Lacertilia). PhD dissertation. University of Michigan.
- ZUG GR, BROWN HHK, SCHULTE JA II, VINDUM JV. 2006. Systematics of the garden lizards, Calotes versicolor Group (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae), in Myanmar: Central Dry Zone populations. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series 4, 57 (2): 35–68.
- "Calotes ". ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System). www.itis.gov.
- Calotes versicolor. The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org. Retrieved 17 January 2013
- Smith MA. 1935. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol II—Sauria. London: Secretary of State for India in Council. (Taylor and Francis, printers). xiii + 440 pp. + Plate I + 2 maps. (Calotes groups, pp. 182-183)
- Calotes. The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
- Hartmann T, Geissler P, Poyarkov NAJ, Ihlow F, Galoyan EA, Rödder D, Böhme W. (2013). A new species of the genus Calotes Cuvier, 1817 (Squamata: Agamidae) from southern Vietnam. Zootaxa 3599 (3): 246–260.
- Pal, Saunak; Vijayakumar, S.P.; Shanker, Kartik; Jayarajan, Aditi; Deepak, V. (2018). "A systematic revision of Calotes Cuvier, 1817 (Squamata: Agamidae) from the Western Ghats adds two genera and reveals two new species". Zootaxa. 4482 (3): 401–450. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4482.3.1. PMID 30313808.