The Calabrian dialect of Greek, or Grecanico is the variety of Italiot Greek used by the ethnic Griko people in Calabria, as opposed to the Italiot Greek dialect spoken in the Grecìa Salentina. Both are remnants of the Ancient and Byzantine Greek colonization of the region.
|c. 2,000 (2010)|
Location map of the Italiot-speaking areas Grecìa Salentina and Bovesia
Calabrian Greek is mentioned in the Red Book of UNESCO on endangered languages, together with Griko. In addition, Euromosaic analyses and recognizes it as being an endangered and minority language in the European Union. It is mentioned by Ethnologue as a dialect of Modern Greek in the sense of a modern vernacular language of the Hellenic family (as is the case with Pontic and Tsakonian Greek).
The use of Calabrian Greek can trace its roots to the ancient colonies of Magna Grecia, and possibly earlier. Calabria was once a territory of the Byzantine empire from 536 AD until it was conquered by the Normans in 1071 AD. During Byzantine rule the territory was referred to as the Catepanate of Italy.
Calabrian Greek was spoken throughout the whole of south Calabria until the 15th to 16th century, when it was gradually replaced by a Romance dialect (Calabrian), but there are influences of Calabrian Greek on the grammar and in a large part of the latter's vocabulary. During the Angevin Age (1266–1435) the Greek dialect was widely spoken in a large area between Seminara, Taurianova, the Mésima's valley and the plateau of Poro. A brief historical analysis illustrates quite readily the progressive disappearance of the Greek dialect in different Calabrian areas from the 16th century onwards.
Around the mid-16th century, it had disappeared from the fields of Petrace, particularly from the high valley of Diverso and Tasi. During the 17th century the regression spread to some valleys in the western side of Aspromonte near the Straits of Messina, such as the Catona and Gallico Valleys. During the 19th century, it was lost in some villages like Pentedattilo, Africo, Brancaleone, Motta San Giovanni, Montebello, and San Lorenzo, on the Ionic side of Aspromonte; and in the early 20th century, that spread to the towns of Palizzi, Staiti, Cardeto, Roccaforte del Greco, Amendolea and Condofuri.
Today, Calabrian Greek is spoken in nine towns of Bovesìa including Bova Superiore, Roghudi, Gallicianò, Chorìo di Roghudi, Bova Marina, and the city of Reggio di Calabria, especially in the neighborhoods of San Giorgio Extra and Rione Modena.
Several hundred Griko people continue to speak the Calabrian-Greek dialect in the Arangea and Sbarre neighbourhoods of Reggio Calabria and another small number has been reported in Melito di Porto Salvo, mainly from migration from Roghudi and from Chorìo after the severe floods that occurred there in 1971.
About 2,000 Griko people now speak and understand the language, but only about 50 of them are under the age of thirty-five, despite the efforts of cultural associations and administrative agencies to reinvigorate the language.
Calabrian Greek has much in common with Modern Standard Greek. With respect to its origins, some philologists assert that it is derived from Koine Greek by Medieval Greek, but others assert that it comes directly from Ancient Greek and particularly from the Doric Greek spoken in Magna Graecia, with an independent evolution uninfluenced by Koine Greek.
The evidence is based on archaisms in this language, including the presence of words from Doric Greek but no longer used in Greece (except in Tsakonian). There are also quite a few distinctive characteristics in comparison with Standard Modern Greek.
For example, in many cases, the final "-s" in most words has been lost (i.e. gaidaros (donkey) becomes gadaro in Calabrian Greek). Moreover, a future tense does not exist in this dialect; it is replaced by the present tense.
The literature is scarce and consists of books of poetry, local history or calendars, frequently in three languages (Italian, Calabrian Greek and Modern Greek).
In the absence of a linguistic authority, in the late 1970s, the association Jalò tu Vúa initiated a research group to set up methodological standards to teach Calabrian Greek and draft a grammar for the schools. The commune of Bova published it as pamphlet in 1979 with the title La Glossa di Bova (Bova's dialect).
Role in humanismEdit
Calabrians were well represented in Humanism and in the Renaissance. Indeed, the Greek scholars of that period frequently came from Calabria, maybe because of the influence of spoken Greek. The rediscovery of Ancient Greek in Western Christianity was very difficult because this language had been almost forgotten. The presence of Calabrian humanists as well as refugees from Constantinople was essential.
Leonzio Pilato, in particular, was an ethnic Greek Calabrian born near Reggio Calabria. He was an important teacher of Ancient Greek and translator, and he helped Giovanni Boccaccio in the translations of Homer's works.
Calabrian Greek has never had a broad tradition in music, but there are a number of local folk groups that sing in this dialect.
An annual festival called "Palea riza" ("Ancient Root" in both Calabrian and Standard Greek) of world and Calabrian Greek music is held in Bova and other picturesque towns of the area.
Inspired by the efforts of Rohlfs, a group of university students looked to further increase the exposure of this dialect by publishing a pamphlet entitled La Ionica. This was the first organised activity aimed at protecting the language.
In 1970, the group established a cultural association named La Ionica and the pamphlet became a magazine, which contained poetry and prose in both Italian and in Greek Calabrian. The same association established contacts with Greek speakers of Grecìa Salentina aimed at creating the UGIM (Union of Greeks of South Italy) to protect the region's bilingualism jointly and to demand formal state recognition in such areas, such as bilingual road signs.
Following the example of La Ionica, other local associations were established, including Zoí ce glossa (Life and language) in Reggio Calabria, Cinurio Cosmó (New World) and Jalò tu Vúa in Bova Marina, CUMELCA in Gallicianò and Roghudi and Apodiafázi (Dawn) in Bova Superiore.
There are two periodicals in Calabrian Greek: I Riza, which is trilingual (Italian, Calabrian Greek and Modern Greek) and published by the Jalò tu Vúa association, and CUMELCA. The former is a four-monthly publication, and the latter is supposed to be published every three months but is irregular. The region gives some financial aid to support the publications.
No radio stations broadcast in Calabrian Greek, mostly because of the crisis of the local private radio stations. Between 1977 and 1984, coinciding with the boom in local stations, some stations aired programs in this language. Among them were the Radio Antenna Don Bosco at Bova Marina, Radio San Paolo at Reggio di Calabria and RTM at Mélito di Porto Salvo. The dialect has never been used on television.
Education and raising awarenessEdit
The Greek government in Athens, by the Associazione Internazionale degli Ellenofoni (SFEE) or the International Association of Greek-speakers, has established relations with La Ionica and has officially invited Calabrian Greeks at the annual meetings they host in Greece. Apart from that, La Ionica has not been well supported by government public institutions; awareness of this problem has really surfaced in only the last few years.
The region of Calabria has encouraged the education of the dialect in schools, along with what already happens regarding Albanian, thus promoting bilingualism. In 1993, the region also created an Istituto Regionale Superiore di Studi Ellenofoni (Regional Institute of Advanced Hellenophonic Studies), based in Bova Marina.
Despite the initial activity, the program has not made many advances because of the lack of qualified teachers and the fact that bilingualism is not present in administration. The improvements are very small and at the moment, for example, only the towns of Bova and Bova Marina have bilingual street signs.
The gradual decline in the use of Greek Calabrian is mainly from the population viewing it as nothing more than a dialect, a form of expression of the lower classes that is typical of rural and/or illiterate peoples. The lack of linguistic registers (use in environments other than at a familiar level) is a further impediment to its survival.
The language was preserved while the population remained isolated in the mountains of the Aspromonte. Following the migrations from the zones of the bulk of the population, the younger generations of today have only a very basic knowledge of the language. Also, improved education standards encourage the use of other languages, such as Italian, even on a day-to-day basis.
Activity in the area of education, even if it is supported by local administration and legislation in promoting the presence of Greek in the classroom and in universities, is limited because lecturers and tutors with an adequate knowledge of Greek Calabrian are not available to offer courses. Initial activity has been limited to the initiatives of cultural groups at a local level, with the financial support of the odd local council.
The teaching of the language in schools has not followed a bilingual format but has been offered more as an optional subject at primary school level, thanks to the financial support of the regional government and the European Community. Student numbers have remained quite low.
The teaching of the language is completely absent at the secondary school level. Still, the cultural associations offer courses aimed at adults.
Thus, the biggest problem remains the limited knowledge of the language on the part of the teaching fraternity for which bilingualism is not a mandatory element of their qualification. Some further education of such graduates is offered by the odd cultural association such as Jalò tu Vúa but only by the support of the European Community. That association has even worked towards the creation of a Greek Calabrian grammar.
- Tom Mueller, Calabria Grecanica Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, article at madeinsouthitaly.com. Retrieved 31 March 2015: "In the last 30 years alone, five Greek-speaking villages have been abandoned. Though no one knows exactly how many native speakers remain, they cannot number much above 2,000."
- In Salento e Calabria le voci della minoranza linguistica greca Archived 9 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine. F. Violi, Lessico Grecanico-Italiano-Grecanico, Apodiafàzzi, Reggio Calabria, 1997. Paolo Martino, L'isola grecanica dell'Aspromonte. Aspetti sociolinguistici, 1980. Risultati di un'inchiesta del 1977 Filippo Violi, Storia degli studi e della letteratura popolare grecanica, C.S.E. Bova (RC), 1992. Filippo Condemi, Grammatica Grecanica, Coop. Contezza, Reggio Calabria, 1987. Macrì, Gabriella (2016). "Aspetti intertestuali tra letteratura grecanica di Calabria e letteratura grecaa". Linguarum Varietas (5): 121–132. doi:10.1400/243852. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019. "Il greco nell'Italia meridionale: Italo-greco" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019. Pipyrou, Stavroula (September 2010). "Grecanici ethnicisation : power and knowledge at work". Anthropology Reviews : Dissent and Cultural Politics (Ardac). 2. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019. Pipyrou, Stavroula (2012). "Commensurable language and incommensurable claims among the Greek linguistic minority of Southern Italy". Journal of Modern Italian Studies. 17: 70–91. doi:10.1080/1354571X.2012.628104. S2CID 144311173."TRATTI LINGUISTICI IN COMUNE NEI DIALETTI ITALOGRECI E ITALIANI DELL'ITALIA MERIDIONALE CON PARTICOLARE RIGUARDO ALL'USO DELL'INFINITO" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2019. "Home". www.galareagrecanica.it. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019. Ou, Yapeng; Bevilacqua, Carmelina (8 June 2018). "From Territorial Identity to Territorial Branding: Tourism-led Revitalization of Minor Historic Towns in Reggio Calabria" – via ResearchGate. Rognoni, Cristina (2014). "Pratique juridique grecque et économie dans la Calabre post-byzantine (XIIe-XIIIe siècle)". Cahiers de Recherches Médiévales et Humanistes (28): 409–430. doi:10.4000/crm.13758. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019. Pipyrou, Stavroula (2010). "Urbanities: Grecanici Migration to the City of Reggio Calabria, South Italy". History and Anthropology. 21: 19–36. doi:10.1080/02757201003647141. S2CID 144996934. "L'isola grecanica dell'Aspromonte. Aspetti sociolinguistici" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2019. Pipyrou, Stavroula (2014). "Colonialism and "Southernisation". The case of Grecanici in Calabria". Etnografia e Ricerca Qualitativa (2/2014). doi:10.3240/77330. "Rischio desertificazione nei comprensori comunali dell'Area Grecanica (Calabria)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019. Rohlfs, G. (1978). "Calabria Dialettale Tra Monte Pollino e Aspromonte (Calabria Latina e Calabria Grecanica)". Forum Italicum: A Journal of Italian Studies. 12: 3–10. doi:10.1177/001458587801200101. S2CID 164146642. Pipyrou, Stavroula (28 July 2016). The Grecanici of Southern Italy: Governance, Violence, and Minority Politics. ISBN 9780812292985. Morazzoni, Monica; Zavettieri, Giovanna Giulia (2019). "I grecanici dell'Aspromonte: identità culturale, tradizioni e turismo". Geography Notebooks. 2. doi:10.7358/gn-2019-001-mora. Modaffari, Giovanni (2019). "PER UNA GEOGRAFIA DELL'AREA GRECANICA: ABBANDONO, SDOPPIAMENTO E MUSEALIZZAZIONE DEI CENTRI INTERNI". Documenti Geografici (2): 33–51. doi:10.19246/DOCUGEO2281-7549/201802_03. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019. Artuso, R. 1999. Roghudi e Ghorio, Una fetta di mondo grecanico. Roghudi (RC): Comune di Roghudi. Crupi, P. 1982. Roghudi, Un’isola grecanica asportata. Cosenza: Pellegrini Editore. Martino, P. 1980. “L’isola grecanica dell’Aspromonte. Aspetti sociolinguistici”. Atti dell’XI Congresso Internazionale di Studi (Cagliari 27–30 maggio 1977), a cura di F. A. Leoni, 305–341. Roma: Bulzoni. Martino, P. 1979. L’isola grecanica dell’Aspromonte. Aspetti sociolinguistici. In Albano Leoni, F. (ed.). 1979. I Dialetti e le Lingue delle Minoranze di Fronte all’Italiano. Roma: Bulzoni. Violi, F. 1992. Storia degli studi e della letteratura popolare grecanica, Bova (RC): C.S.E.[excessive citations]
- "Endangered languages in Europe: report". helsinki.fi. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "Euromosaic – Greek (Griko) in Italy". uoc.edu. Archived from the original on 15 January 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "Greek". ethnologue.com. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "Department of History : Calabria, AD 400–1000: Settlements, societies and landscapes". Durham University. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- Holton, David (1991). Literature and society in Renaissance Crete. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-521-32579-X.
Most significant is the information that around 1350 a Greek from Calabria by the name of Leontius Pilatus spent several years in Crete
- Grendler, Paul F. (2004). The universities of the Italian Renaissance. JHU Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-8018-8055-6.
Boccaccio persuaded the commune to appoint Leonzio Pilato, a Greek from Calabria, to teach Greek, the first such professorship in western Europe.
- Manguel, Alberto (2007). Homer's the Iliad and the Odyssey: Books That Shook the World. Allen & Unwin. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-74114-900-5.
Leonzio Pilato, a Calabrian monk of Greek origin, translated the Odyssey and the Iliad into Latin