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Cadillac ELR

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The Cadillac ELR is a two-door, four-passenger luxury plug-in hybrid compact coupé manufactured and marketed by Cadillac for model years (MY) 2014 and 2016 – with a hiatus for MY 2015.[6] Using a retuned version of the Chevrolet Volt's Voltec EREV drivetrain,[3] the ELR's lithium-ion battery pack delivers an all-electric range of 37–39 miles (60–63 km) and a top speed of 106 mph (171 km/h).[5][7]

Cadillac ELR
2014 Cadillac ELR trimmed.jpg
2014 Cadillac ELR
Overview
ManufacturerGeneral Motors
Production2013–2016
Model years2014 and 2016
AssemblyUnited States: Detroit, Michigan (Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly)[1]
Designer
  • Exterior: Tim Kozub
  • Interior: Keith Fisher[2]
Body and chassis
ClassCompact car[1]
Body style2-door coupé
LayoutTransverse front-engine, front-wheel drive[1]
PlatformGM Delta II / GM Voltec[3]
Related
Powertrain
Engine1398 cc EcoFLEX LUU I4 (gasoline)[1]
TransmissionCVT Voltec 4ET50 multi-mode electric transaxle[1]
Hybrid drivetrainSeries hybrid[4]
Battery16.5kwh (2014) – 17.1kwh (2016) kWh lithium-ion battery[1]
Range340 mi (550 km)(EPA)[5]
Electric range(2014) 37 mi (60 km) (2016) 39 mi (63 km) (EPA)[5]
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,695 mm (106.1 in)[1]
Length4,724 mm (186.0 in)[1]
Width1,847 mm (72.7 in)[1]
Height1,420 mm (55.9 in)[1]
Curb weight1,846 kg (4,070 lb)[1]

The ELR derived from Cadillac's Converj concept, which debuted at the 2009 North American International Auto Show. Scheduled for production and subsequently canceled during GM's bankruptcy and restructuring, and after a series of on-again, off-again decisions, the ELR was approved for production for MY 2014 with a MSRP at roughly $75,000 — $35,000 higher than the Volt whose basic powertrain it shared.[8]

Styled under the exterior design direction of Tim Kozub,[9] Cadillac presented the production ELR at the 2013 North American International Auto Show[10][11] with retail deliveries beginning in the United States and Canada in December 2013.[12]

ELR manufacture ended in February 2016[13] with a total production just under 3,000.

DevelopmentEdit

The Cadillac Converj concept debuted in January 2009 at the North American International Auto Show.
The Cadillac Converj concept viewed from the rear

General Motors debuted the Cadillac Converj concept, the car that would eventually become the 2014 Cadillac ELR, in January 2009, at the North American International Auto Show.[14]

In April 2009, Motor Trend reported that General Motors approved the production version of Cadillac Converj in 2011 as a 2012 model year vehicle.[15] GM refuted the report, saying that the Converj was "a concept vehicle undergoing a review".[16] An August 2009 BusinessWeek report said GM vice-chairman Robert Lutz wanted to see the Converj go into production, possibly as early as 2014,[17] and it was reported that while delivering the keynote speech at the 46th annual Northwood Auto Show Lutz "hinted that an announcement on production for the well-received Cadillac Converj concept car may be forthcoming."[18] At the 2010 North American International Auto Show, Lutz told the Society of Automotive Analysts, "The Cadillac Converj is cleared for production," but that "It won't be next year or the year after that."[19] Despite these statements, in March 2010, Bloomberg BusinessWeek reported that GM decided to end work on the Converj, because the car "couldn't have enough amenities and electric range to be compelling to buyers and produce a profit".[20]

In August 2011, General Motors reversed its decision to cancel the project and announced the Converj concept would go into production as the Cadillac ELR, at a price less than the US$57,400 Tesla Model S, but did not provide details on performance or timing. General Motors said the ELR would be about the same size as the Chevrolet Volt and would be produced in the same facility.[21][22] Within the framework of GM's vehicle electrification strategy,[23] the Cadillac ELR was—after the Chevrolet Volt EREV and Spark EV—the third plug-in electric passenger car sold by General Motors in the U.S. since the EV1 was discontinued. In contrast to pure battery EV proponents like Tesla Motors, GM has initially focused on extended-range EV technology that incorporates internal combustion engines.

General Motors began testing ELR prototypes in mid-2012.[24][25] The production version was unveiled at the 2013 North American International Auto Show.[11]

SpecificationsEdit

 
U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu discusses the features of the 2014 Cadillac ELR exhibited at the 2013 Washington Auto Show.

The ELR incorporates a version of the Voltec[3] propulsion system used in the Chevrolet Volt. The Voltec propulsion system includes a 119–135-kilowatt electric motor, a four-cylinder engine-generator and a 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery pack. The ELR has an official all-electric range of 37 miles (60 km) and a total range of 340 mi (550 km), as rated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).[5] Charging times are 12.5–18 hours using the 120-volt travel charger, and about 5 hours using a 240-volt charging station. Top speed is 106 mph (171 km/h) and accelerates from 0–60 mph in 7.8 seconds in range extended mode.[7] Regenerative braking is controlled by steering wheel-mounted paddles.[26]

Features include LED lighting, active air shutters, automatic high/low-beam headlamps, Bose 10-speaker sound system with active noise cancellation, and hand-cut-and-sewn interior with leather seating and microfiber suede headliners. Optional features include a full speed-range adaptive cruise control, collision-imminent braking, side blind zone assist and rear cross-traffic warning. The base model has 16-way-adjustable seats, with an optional 20-way-adjustable system.[26]

For MY 2014, the ELR was available in four exterior colors, radiant silver metallic, black raven, graphite metallic and extra-cost bi-coat crystal red — with a tri-coat white edition of 100 examples marketed through Saks Fifth Avenue — fully optioned with an upgraded 240-volt charging station (including installation) and concierge service.[27] For MY 2016, the ELR was available in radiant silver, stellar black, graphite metallic, crystal white and red passion colors.

2016 modelEdit

Skipping the 2015 model year, for the 2016 model year Cadillac decreased the ELR's MSRP by $10,000 and raised total system horsepower, from the its two electric motors and gasoline four-cylinder engine. Horsepower increased from 217 to 233, and peak torque increased from 295 lb-ft to 373 – reducing the zero-to-60 time by 1.5 seconds. The 2016 models featured revised torque-steer-mitigating strut technology with stiffer springs, stiffer control-arm bushings, and the addition of a damper rebound spring.

The rear twist-beam axle received stiffer bushings for its Watts linkage and the adaptive suspension was retuned to match the increased stiffness and the recalibrated steering.Brakes were also upgraded. An optional performance package reduces the ELR's electric-only driving range by about four miles, and includes summer-only performance tires, new 20-inch wheels, Brembo four-piston front brake calipers with 13.6-inch vented rotors, a sport steering wheel with a thicker rim, and unique steering and suspension revisions.

The 2016 ELR included previously optional blind-spot monitoring, rear cross-traffic alert, automatic high beams, and lane-change alert as well as a 4G LTE onboard data connection with Wi-Fi hotspot capability. The 2016 model also features Cadillac's revised, wreathless crest badge and a revised front "grille."

The engine management software was updated and the regenerative braking system reconfigured. The 2016 ELR delivered an all-electric range of 39 mi (63 km), up from 37 miles (60 km).[28]

Fuel economyEdit

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officially rated the 2014 model year ELR's combined city/highway fuel economy in all-electric mode at 82 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e) (2.9 L gasoline equivalent/100 km; 98 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent). This rating considers a conversion factor of 33.7 kWh of electricity being the energy equivalent of a gallon of gasoline, and the ELR has an energy consumption rate of 41 kWh/100 mi for combined city/highway driving.[5] The EPA rating in gasoline-only mode is 33 mpg‑US (7.1 L/100 km; 40 mpg‑imp) for combined driving. The 2014 Volt has a rating of 37 mpg‑US (6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg‑imp) for gasoline-only mode and a fuel economy in all-electric mode of 98 MPG-e (2.4 L gasoline equivalent/100 km; 118 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent).[29] The ELR has more power than the Volt but is 300 lb (140 kg) heavier.[30]

Operating modesEdit

The ELR has a traditional shift lever (PRNDL) with a button on the console allowing selection of four driving modes: Tour, Hold, Mountain and Sport:

Tour mode, the default setting, lets the ELR operate in all-electric mode (EV mode) until its battery is fully discharged. This mode provides the maximum powertrain efficiency and a minimum level of vibration.
Hold mode allows the driver to save the energy currently stored in the battery for later use, such as traveling in urban areas.[30]
Mountain mode was designed to provide more available battery power in mountainous environments by increasing minimum battery state of charge (SOC) in the battery. The car uses the gasoline-engine sooner, or runs it longer to build up the battery's state of charge, thus allowing the car to maintain performance on steep and long grades. Range extended versions of the BMW i3 do not have this mode and have struggled in these situations, resulting in a class-action lawsuit.[31]
Sport mode improved throttle response, and improved feedback with more aggressive steering and suspension settings.[30] For 2016, the ELR could combine power from both the engine and electric motor when in Sport mode.

The EPA's 2014 edition of the "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends" report calculated utility factors for plug-in hybrids to estimate the percentage of miles that would be driven using electricity by the average driver, in electric only or blended modes. The ELR scored a utility factor of 65%, compared with 83% for the BMW i3 REx, 66% for the Chevrolet Volt, 45% for the Ford Energi models, and 29% for the Toyota Prius PHV.[32] Real world driving statistics (collected automatically by OnStar[33] and shared by ELR owners on the Volt Stats website) showed a fleet total of 98.46 MPG (141.87 MPG median) as of August 2016.[34]

Production and salesEdit

 
Shipping to dealers of the 2014 Cadillac ELR began in late December 2013.

In October 2012, General Motors announced that the ELR would be assembled at the Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly Plant, alongside the Chevrolet Volt, Opel Ampera, and Holden Volt. The addition of the ELR to the plant represented an additional US$35 million investment, bringing the total product investment at the plant to US$561 million since December 2099.

General Motors began assembly of pre-production vehicles to be used for testing in late May 2013. Production of vehicles destined for retail customers began in December 2013.[35][36] Shipping to dealerships from the Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly began on December 20, 2013[37] and, while retail deliveries were scheduled to begin in January 2014, the first 10 units were delivered early in December 2013—six in the U.S.[12] and four in Canada.[38]

In the United States, the 2014 ELR had a base price of US$75,000 before applicable government incentives.[36][39] Due to slow early sales, Cadillac skipped the 2015 model year for the ELR. The 2016 model was released with a $10,000 lower base price ($58,495 after U.S. federal tax credits[40]).

Calendar Year Total sales United States[41][42] Canada[38]
2013 10 6 4
2014 1,354 1,310 44
2015 1,049 1,024 25
2016 545 534 11
Total 2,958 2,874 84

ELR production ended on February 18, 2016.

Cadillac announced that it will launch a new plug-in hybrid version of its new CT6 sedan in late 2016.[13]

Awards and recognitionEdit

 
2014 Cadillac ELR

In 2009, the Converj concept was awarded "Best Concept Vehicle" in the Eyes on Design Awards, "Most Significant Concept Vehicle of 2009" in the North American Concept Vehicle of the Year Awards and "Specialty Concept Vehicle of the Year" by the Southeast Automotive Media Organization.[43][44][45]

In 2012, Green Car Journal selected the ELR as one of the five finalists in the Green Car Vision Awards.[46]

In 2013, the ELR was awarded "Best Production Vehicle" in the Eyes on Design Awards.[47]

In 2014, the ELR won the "Green Car Technology Award" for its Regen on Demand system, which allows the driver "to use paddle shifters on the steering wheel to temporarily regenerate energy and store it…in the battery pack for later use."[48] The second generation Chevrolet Volt adopted a refined version of this system in the 2016 model year.[49]

The updated 2016 ELR earned the "Vincentric Best Value in America" award for the lowest maintenance and repair costs in the "Luxury Electric/Plug-In Hybrid" class.[50]

MarketingEdit

Cadillac launched the ELR marketing campaign with a 60-second television commercial. Called Poolside and featuring actor Neal McDonough, the commercial prominently aired during broadcast of the 2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony as well as before and during the 86th Academy Awards (Oscars) in March 2014.[51]

The commercial opens with its protagonist, an American businessman portrayed by McDonough, casually dressed and standing by the outdoor swimming pool of his contemporary, upscale home, asking "why do we work so hard?" He walks through his home, interacting with his family, changing into business attire, ultimately standing by and unplugging his ELR – while extolling the American Dream, the Wright Brothers, NASA's moon mission, Bill Gates and American work ethic and short annual leave – compared to other countries, unnamed. He finally asserts from the driver's seat of his ELR that the house and car are the benefit of only taking two weeks off in August, finally asking rhetorically, n'est-ce pas? — and winking to the camera.[52] GM targeted an audience earning $200,000 per year.[52]

In 2014, USAToday said the ad "may be the best TV ad – not just car ad – of the year."[53] Ad Age, describing the ad as contentious and controversial, reported that "fans on the political right see Poolside as an unapologetic ode to American values. Critics on the political left see it as Ugly American chest thumping at its worst. During a time when Americans are working harder and longer for less money, others question the spot's perceived workaholic message."[54] Ford subsequently parodied Poolside with a commercial for the Ford C-Max hybrid, featuring a spokesperson for a group that promotes urban farming, praising "hard work not for material gain, but in the name of progress," also ending with a rhetorical n’est-ce pas?[55]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "2014 Cadillac ELR Specifications". Cadillac News. General Motors Company. 2013. Archived from the original on September 18, 2013. Retrieved September 17, 2013. EPA vehicle class: Compact car
  2. ^ "Design Powers 2014 Cadillac ELR" (Press release). Detroit, Michigan: General Motors Company. January 15, 2013. Archived from the original on September 18, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2013. "When we introduced the Converj in 2009, we knew any production model would need to advance the concept yet retain the distinctive design language and styling that were so well received," said Tim Kozub, ELR exterior design manager.
  3. ^ a b c Matthe, Roland; Eberle, Ulrich (January 1, 2014). "The Voltec System – Energy Storage and Electric Propulsion". Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  4. ^ Miller, Michael A.; Holmes, Alan G.; Conlon, Brendan M.; Savagian, Peter J. (April 12, 2011). "The GM "Voltec" 4ET50 Multi-Mode Electric Transaxle". SAE International – Technical Papers. SAE International. doi:10.4271/2011-01-0887. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
  5. ^ a b c d e U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (June 6, 2014). "2014 Cadillac ELR". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved June 8, 2014.
  6. ^ "Cadillac Converj To Include GM's Volt Plug-In Technology". Autoweek. Crain Communications. January 10, 2010. ISSN 0192-9674. Archived from the original on October 11, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2013. General Motors Co. will produce the Cadillac Converj plug-in concept car introduced at last year's Detroit auto show, Vice Chairman Bob Lutz said.
  7. ^ a b Mike Szostech. "Cadillac ELR Specs". My Electric Car Forums. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
  8. ^ "R.I.P. Cadillac ELR: what went wrong with luxury electric coupe?". Green Car Reports.
  9. ^ "Design Powers 2014 Cadillac ELR". General Motors. "When we introduced the Converj in 2009, we knew any production model would need to advance the concept yet retain the distinctive design language and styling that were so well received," said Tim Kozub, ELR exterior design manager. "In fact, the ELR exterior honors the concept so closely that one might think it was in the studio throughout the design process.”
  10. ^ "Cadillac Converj Extended-Range Electric Vehicle". GM-Volt.com. GM-Volt.com. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
  11. ^ a b Miersma, Seyth (January 15, 2013). "2014 Cadillac ELR Is Making Green Sexy in Detroit". Autoblog. AOL. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
  12. ^ a b Jay Cole (January 3, 2014). "Cadillac ELR Arrives Early, Manages To Sell 6 Copies in December". InsideEvs.com. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
  13. ^ a b Cobb, Jeff (May 13, 2016). "2016 Cadillac ELR Production Was Permanently Cancelled in February". HybridCars.com. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  14. ^ Johnson, Eric (January 2009). "Cadillac Converj Concept". Car and Driver. Hearst Communications. Archived from the original on October 11, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2013. ...GM rolled out this gorgeous 2+2 coupe concept at the Detroit auto show. Essentially a Chevrolet Volt sedan underneath, the Cadillac Converj makes that car, no uggo itself, look like a toaster oven in comparison.
  15. ^ Mick, Jason (April 15, 2009). "Report: Production of Cadillac Converj Approved". DailyTech. DailyTech. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
  16. ^ Abuelsamid, Sam (April 15, 2009). "Cadillac Converj Reportedly Approved for Production". Autoblog Green. AOL. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
  17. ^ Welch, David (August 21, 2009). "At GM, Dreams of an Electric Cadillac". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
  18. ^ Doerr, Erich T. (October 3, 2009). "Lutz Sings Praises, Quality of 'New' GM's New Auto Line". Midland Daily News. Midland Daily News. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
  19. ^ "GM to Produce Cadillac Converj Electric Vehicle, Lutz Says". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. January 10, 2010. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
  20. ^ Welch, David (March 1, 2010). "GM Said to Drop Volt-Based Cadillac to Focus on Plug-In Hybrids". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
  21. ^ "Cadillac Converj Extended Range EV Concept Officially Headed for Production". Green Car Congress. BioAge Group. August 17, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  22. ^ Trudell, Craig; Welch, David (August 17, 2011). "GM Plans to Build Plug-In Cadillac ELR That's Similar to Chevrolet Volt". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on September 18, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  23. ^ Brinkman, Norman; Eberle, Ulrich; Formanski, Volker; Grebe, Uwe-Dieter; Matthe, Roland (April 15, 2012). "Vehicle Electrification – Quo Vadis". VDI. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
  24. ^ Vijayenthiran, Viknesh (June 28, 2012). "New Details on Cadillac ELR Extended-Range Electric Car". Motor Authority. Motor Authority. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  25. ^ Ernst, Kurt (September 6, 2012). "2014 Cadillac ELR Spy Shots". Motor Authority. Motor Authority. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  26. ^ a b "2014 Cadillac ELR: Technology trickling up". Charged.
  27. ^ "2014 Cadillac ELR Saks Fifth Avenue Special Edition Debuts". Edmunds.
  28. ^ Noah Joseph (April 15, 2015). "2016 Cadillac ELR gets more power, $9,000 price drop". Autoblog.com. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  29. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (June 6, 2014). "2014 Cadillac ELR and 2014 Chevrolet Volt". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved June 8, 2014.
  30. ^ a b c Michael Harley (November 25, 2013). "First Drive – 2014 Cadillac ELR: When Looks Are Everything". Autoblog.com. Retrieved June 8, 2014.
  31. ^ "BMW i3 REx electric-car lawsuit: range-extender power loss alleged". Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  32. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (October 2014). "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2014" (PDF). EPA. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2014. Retrieved October 14, 2014. See Table 7.2 – MY 2014 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Powertrain and Range.
  33. ^ "Volt Stats: Frequently Asked Questions". voltstats.net. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  34. ^ "ELR Stats! Tracking real world usage of Cadillac ELRs in the wild..." voltstats.net. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  35. ^ Ross, Jeffrey N. (May 30, 2013). "First Cadillac ELR Rolls Off the Line". Autoblog. AOL. Archived from the original on September 18, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
  36. ^ a b Burden, Melissa (October 11, 2013). "GM Prices Cadillac ELR Plug-In Coupe at $75,995". The Detroit News. The Detroit News. ISSN 1055-2715. Archived from the original on October 11, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2013. Production on the luxury coupe at GM's Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly Plant is expected to begin in December and it should hit dealer lots nationally in early January, said Cadillac spokesman David Caldwell.
  37. ^ GM Press Release (December 20, 2013). "Cadillac Begins Delivery of ELR Luxury Sport Coupe Electric Hybrid". EV World. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
  38. ^ a b Klippenstein, Matthew (January 2015). "Plug-in electric car sales in Canada, December 2014". Green Car Reports. Retrieved February 18, 2015. A total of 4 ELRs were sold in 2013 and 44 in 2014.
  39. ^ "Cadillac ELR Sales to Begin in January" (Press release). Detroit, Michigan: General Motors Company. October 11, 2013. Archived from the original on October 11, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2013. ...the 2014 ELR has a starting price of $75,995, including a $995 destination charge but excluding tax, title, license and dealer fees. Upon IRS certification of an anticipated federal tax credit, purchasers may be eligible for a tax credit from $0 to $7,500 depending on individual tax liability.
  40. ^ "2016 ELR Advances with More Power, Technology". Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  41. ^ Jeff Cobb (January 6, 2015). "December 2014 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved February 18, 2015. U.S. deliveries totaled 6 units in 2013 and 1,310 in 2014.
  42. ^ Cobb, Jeff (January 6, 2016). "December 2015 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved May 13, 2016. U.S. deliveries totaled 1,024 units in 2015.
  43. ^ Maynard, Shawn (2010). "Cadillac Converj Named Best Concept Vehicle of 2009 Detroit Show". Automobile.com. Archived from the original on February 17, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
  44. ^ Blanco, Sebastian (June 24, 2009). "Fisker Karma Sunset, Converj, BlueSport Roadster win Concept Vehicle of the Year Awards". Autoblog Green. AOL. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
  45. ^ Biel, John (July 1, 2009). "Converj "Emerjes" as Top Concept Vehicle". How Stuff Works ConsumerGuide Automotive. Publications International. Archived from the original on February 18, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
  46. ^ King, Danny (January 13, 2012). "Tesla Model S, BMW i3 Among 2012 Green Car Vision Finalists". Autoblog Green. AOL. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
  47. ^ Patton, Phil (January 16, 2013). "Cadillac, Ford, Nissan and Lutz Win Design Awards". The New York Times. Wheels. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Archived from the original on October 11, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2013. For best production vehicle, Cadillac's Volt-based extended range electric ELR beat out the Corvette Stingray.
  48. ^ "Regen on Demand Wins 2014 Green Car Technology Award". Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  49. ^ "2016 Chevrolet Volt To Add On-Demand Regenerative Braking". Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  50. ^ "2016 Consumer Winner Luxury Electric/Plug-In Hybrid". vincentric.com. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  51. ^ Woodyard, Chris (March 3, 2014). "Is Cadillac's ELR ad causing rich-guy backlash?". USA Today. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
  52. ^ a b McCarthy, Michael (March 1, 2014). "Cadillac Clears Up 'Misconceptions' About Contentious 'Poolside' Ad". Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  53. ^ "Is Cadillac's ELR ad causing rich-guy backlash?". USA Today.
  54. ^ "Cadillac Clears Up 'Misconceptions' About Contentious 'Poolside' Ad". Advertising Age.
  55. ^ "Ford Trashes Cadillac With Great Parody of 'Poolside' Ad Everyone Hated". Adweek.
  • Leno, Jay (Host); Saucedo, Frank (Guest) (June 17, 2013). 2014 Cadillac ELR. Jay Leno's Garage (Web video). Burbank, California: NBC Studio. Retrieved November 8, 2013.

External linksEdit